• SNAP Tour of Organic Vegetable Garden
  • Weeds Can Be Managed Without Chemical Pesticides
  • Driving Near Recently Sprayed Fields Exposes People to Pesticides
  • Learn to Manage Pests Naturally
  • LIving Near Fields Increases Pesticide Exposure
  • Link to SK Organic Resources
  • Learn About Pesticides in Foods
  • Learn to Keep Insects Out of your Crops
  • Learn About Colony Collapse Disorder and How to Protect Bees
  • Learn To Manage Weeds Without Chemical Pesticides

Bee Die-off

Educational Material

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EducationalBeyond Pesticides Launches Comprehensive K-5 Pollinator Curriculum(Beyond Pesticides September 28, 2016)  For any interested teacher out there. Available on-line and seems free. There are even grants to help adoption of the courriculum in specific areas in the US.

Resources about Wildlife and Waters (NCAP) including Native Bees & Neonicotinoids and Plant These Save Bees + Neonic Examples BEE Protective (Beyond Pesticides)

Pollinators Vital to Our Food Supply Under Threat  Assessment Details Options for Safeguarding Pollinators (UN Environment Programme Fri, Feb 26, 2016) The assessment, titled Thematic Assessment of Pollinators, Pollination and Food Production and the first ever issued by IPBES, is a groundbreaking effort to better understand and manage a critical element of the global ecosystem. It is also the first assessment of its kind that is based on the available knowledge from science and indigenous and local knowledge systems. 16.5% - Percentage of vertebrate pollinators threatened with extinction globally. +40% - Percentage of invertebrate pollinator species - particularly bees and butterflies - facing extinction."Wild pollinators in certain regions, especially bees and butterflies, are being threatened by a variety of factors," said IPBES Vice-Chair, Sir Robert Watson. "Their decline is primarily due to changes in land use, intensive agricultural practices and pesticide use, alien invasive species, diseases and pests, and climate change." ...The assessment found that pesticides, including neonicotinoid insecticides, threaten pollinators worldwide, although the long-term effects are still unknown. Genetically modified crops are usually either tolerant to herbicides or resistant to pest insects. The former reduces the availability of weeds, which supply food for pollinators. The latter often results in lower use of insecticides and may reduce pressure on beneficial insects including pollinators. However, the sub-lethal and indirect effects of GM crops on pollinators are poorly understood and not usually accounted for in risk assessments.

'A disaster in the making': New book on the massive decline of bees and birds

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Press Release, October 29, 2010
Coalition against Bayer Dangers (Germany)    A disaster in the making

Author demands total ban on neonicotinoids  /  pesticides linked to bee and bird decline in western Europe / Bayer´s best-selling substances in question / see Preface

mail-order: www.disasterinthemaking.com
start of sale: November 1, 2010
price:  € 29.95 excluding VAT (if applicable) and shipping costs
ISBN/EAN: 978-90-79627-06-6

In a recent study the Dutch toxicologist Dr. Henk Tennekes demonstrated that the long-term risks for bees associated with the widely used insecticides imidacloprid and thiacloprid are far greater than hitherto thought. In his forthcoming book “The systemic insecticides: A disaster in the making” Tennekes now suggests that bees are not the only victims: Moths, bugs, butterflies, midges and flies have all succumbed too. And as the insects have declined, so have the birds.

Imidacloprid and thiacloprid, produced by the German company Bayer, belong to a substance class known as neonicotinoids. Dr. Tennekes: "Imidacloprid has been shown to seep out of storage or is washed out of the soil into waterways and groundwater. It is quite obvious that ground and surface water contamination with a persistent insecticide that causes irreversible and cumulative damage to aquatic and terrestrial insects must lead to an environmental catastrophe. The data presented in my book show that this catastrophe is actually taking place before our eyes, and that it must be stopped.” Since most if not all neonicotinoids are prone to cause these problems, Tennekes demands a total ban on neonicotinoids. “Bayer should finally listen to reason and stop selling these dangerous products!”, says Tennekes.

Recently Tennekes has shown that the total dose of neonicotinoid insecticides required to kill insects is smaller if administered over a longer time period - in other words, even minute amounts of these pesticides can be fatal to insects in the long run. There is no safe dose. Already in 2003 the Comité Scientifique et Technique, convened by the French government, declared that the treatment of seeds with imidacloprid leads to “significant risks for bees”. The substance is the most widely used insecticide in the world and Bayer´s best-selling pesticide (2009 sales: €606 million).

After huge bee losses in Germany in 2008 which were shown to be caused by neonicotinoid pesticides the Coalition against Bayer Dangers accused the Bayer management of downplaying the risks of neonicotinoids, submitting deficient studies to authorities and thereby accepting huge losses of honey bees in many parts of the world. At the same time, German authorities imposed a ban on the use of imidacloprid and its successor product, clothianidin, on maize. Italy and Slovenia imposed a similar ban.

voices:

  • “This is a stunning book, very powerful. The compilation of recent data regarding levels and impacts of the nicotinyls is extremely useful and convincing regarding the magnitude of risk. The art is wonderful” - Charles Benbrook, PhD, Chief Scientist, The Organic Center, Enterprise, Oregon 
  • “Great great great” - Tasmanian Beekeepers Association
  • "Interspersed with beautiful artistry is a rigorously presented, chilling message that we all must heed." - Meg Sears PhD, CHEO Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada
  • “I would write a letter strongly supporting such a book” - Kevin Hansen, producer of the film "Nicotine Bees"
  • “I don't think you need my praise and esteem for your good work but you have it anyway!” - Katerina Karatasou, Veterinarian, Federation of Greek Beekeepers Associations, Larisa, Greece
  • Depressing and alarming reading” - Phil Chandler, www.biobees.com

contact Dr. Henk Tennekes: info@toxicology.nl, Tel. +31 575 545500

more information:
Bayer pesticide imidacloprid: Long-term risks undervalued
Bulletin of Insectology (2010): The puzzle of honey bee losses
Open Letter to the European Union
Campaign for total ban of neonicotinoid pesticides
Charge against Bayer Board introduced

Coalition against BAYER Dangers (Germany)
CBGnetwork@aol.com
Fax: (+49) 211-333 940   Tel: (+49) 211-333 911
please send an e-mail for receiving the English newsletter Keycode BAYER free of charge. German/Italian/French/Spanish newsletters also available.

Advisory Board
Prof. Juergen Junginger, designer, Krefeld,
Prof. Dr. Juergen Rochlitz, chemist, former member of the Bundestag, Burgwald
Wolfram Esche, attorney, Cologne
Dr. Sigrid Müller, pharmacologist, Bremen
Prof. Rainer Roth, social scientist, Frankfurt
Eva Bulling-Schroeter, member of the Bundestag, Berlin
Prof. Dr. Anton Schneider, biologist, Neubeuern
Dr. Janis Schmelzer, historian, Berlin
Dr. Erika Abczynski, pediatrician, Dormagen
 

 


 

Regulatory Information

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EPA Review Keeps Bee-Toxic Pesticide Sulfoxaflor on the Market with Limited Restrictions (Beyond Pesticides, October 17, 2016) "Sulfoxaflor’s initial 2013 registration was challenged by beekeepers and subsequently vacated by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals due to overwhelming risks to bees and EPA’s inadequate review of the data. The Court concluded that EPA violated federal law when it approved sulfoxaflor without reliable studies regarding the impact that the insecticide may have on honey bee colonies." Its mode of action is similar to that  of neonicotinoid pesticides."Like nenonicotinoids, sulfloxoflor has a long half-life and persists in soil, where it is taken up by growing plants, presenting itself in the nectar and pollen that pollinators rely on for food."  SNAP comment: As of 17 October 2016, there are 5 sulfoxaflor insecticides registered in Canada.

EPA Denies Emergency Petition to Suspend Clothianidin (By Deniza Gertsberg,Sep 13, 2012, GMO Journal )..."The EPA discounted any correlation between the bee die-offs and systemic pesticides...The agency also took issue with the studies submitted by the petitioners. The agency said that the studies “represent a broad array of methods and measurement endpoints” and went on to discount their significance. Ironically, the agency did not have the same concerns when the manufacturer applied for clothianidin’s registration nearly a decade ago."

"In fact, clothianidin was conditionally approved by the EPA back in 2003, before the agency had a safety field study from Bayer. The agency gave Bayer an extension of time to complete its study and “in addition to rewarding Bayer for dragging its feet,  EPA approved protocols  for the study that were so far removed from reality that, even once completed, the study was incapable of detecting the environmental impacts it purported to  evaluate.”

"When Bayer finally submitted its long-overdue field study in 2007, the agency initially approved it as “scientifically sound” when many critics said that it was poorly designed. Some even went as far as to call the study “bogus.”  Still, the EPA granted unconditional registration to clothinidin in April 2010."

"Eight years later and the agency has yet to assess the affects of clothianidin on bees. As the emergency petition pointed out, “Bayer still has neither provided the outstanding data nor complied with the condition for clothianidin’s registration, which was to have been completed by December 2004.”   and more.

EPA Initiates Review for Pesticide Linked to Honeybee Decline  (Beyond Pesticides, July 16, 2009)

Colony collapse Disorder Action Plan U.S. - July 2007 will include looking at the role of pesticides. 

more information on SNAP's Pesticide Fact sheet/nicotinoids, water/Saskatchewan  and info/wildlife/birds, /amphibian

Scientists discover what’s killing the bees and it’s worse than you thought    “It’s not clear whether the pesticides are drifting over to those plants but we need take a new look at agricultural spraying practices,” says vanEngelsdorp. SNAP Comment: It took bees to finally bring us there...Researchers collected pollen from hives on the east coast pollinating cranberry, watermelon and other crops and fed it to healthy bees, those bees showed a significant decline in their ability to resist infection by a parasite called Nosema ceranae. The parasite has been implicated in Colony Collapse Disorder though scientists took pains to point out that their findings do not directly link the pesticides to CCD. The pollen was contaminated on average with nine different pesticides and fungicides though scientists discovered 21 agricultural chemicals in one sample. Scientists identified eight ag chemicals associated with increased risk of infection by the parasite.Most disturbing, bees that ate pollen contaminated with fungicides were three times as likely to be infected by the parasite. Widely used, fungicides had been thought to be harmless for bees as they’re designed to kill fungus, not insects, on crops like apples.The study found another complication in efforts to save the bees: US honey bees, which are descendants of European bees, do not bring home pollen from native North American crops but collect bee chow from nearby weeds and wildflowers. That pollen, however, was also contaminated with pesticides even though those plants were not the target of spraying. SNAP Comment: The abiliy of several registered pesticides to decrease immunity and make animals (and plants) susceptible to disease has been known for some time, at least since they found over 20 years ago that amphibians exposed to DDT in Ontario (including in Point Pelee National Park) were much more susceptible to disease. This is reiterated in Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles, Second Edition, (2010) edited by Donald W. Sparling, Greg Linder, Christine A. Bishop, Sherry Krest, p 281. I guess it took bees to bring it to the general public and most researchers' attention. 

Study Finds Substantial Risks to Honey Bees During and After Crop Pollination (Beyond Pesticides, April 25, 2017)  Honeybees at risk from insecticide and fungicide use in surrounding land. The study fills a gap in knowledge. Cornell researchers conducted a massive study that analyzed both the pollen source and pesticide residue found therein for 120 experimental hives placed near 30 apple orchards in New York State. The landscapes surrounding each orchard were classified based on the amount of natural area or agricultural land that was present. Scientists analyzed risk to honey bees by collecting information about pesticide use during the growing season as well as the amount of pesticide contamination in “beebread,” pollen tightly packed unto pellets by bees used as food or in the production of royal jelly. In 28 out of 30 orchard sites, pesticides not sprayed during that year are detected, totaling 64% of total pesticides found, with roughly 2.8 novel pesticides discovered at each site. Overall, 17% of colonies have pesticide levels so high they present an acute hazard to honey bees, while 73% contain residues that indicate a chronic exposure risk. Ultimately, researchers determined that neonicotinoids as well as a range of other insecticides present significant risks to pollinating honey bees.

Study Links Neonicotinoid Exposure to Learning Deficit in Bees (Beyond Pesticides,  December 14, 2016) Preliminary research presented this week at the British Ecological Society’s annual meeting identifies yet another troublesome connection between the use of neonicotinoid pesticides and the health of bees, a critical pollinator species. The research links neonicotinoid use with an impaired ability of bees to learn to vibrate flowers and shake out the pollen, which is necessary for fertilization in crops like tomatoes and potatoes. and Pesticides stop bees buzzing and releasing pollen, says study (The Guardian, US Ed, 13 Dec 2016) SNAP Comment: Unfortunately there is nothing in either article on what the effects on the 2 ppb group were. These studies used the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, not imidaclopid which the Canadian government is considering banning.

Neonicotinoid Insecticide Exposure Reduces Bumblebee Colony Size (Beyond Pesticides, October 24, 2016) When neonicotinoid “exposure is relatively persistent and combined with other stressors associated with land use change, they could have detrimental effects at the colony level.”  The study, Impact of controlled neonicotinoid exposure on bumblebees in a realistic field setting, assesses the effect of exposure to the neonic, clothianidin, on bumblebee foraging patterns and colony size. Clothianidin was given to 20 buff-tailed bumblebee colonies for five-weeks in a sugar solution at a concentration of 5 parts per billion, an environmentally relevant level of the pesticide. A bumblebee colony census was done before and after the field experiment, where the number of eggs, larvae, pupae, and workers bees were recorded along with the wax and pollen stores in the colony. The researchers found that the clothianidin treated colonies had fewer workers, drones and reproductive female bees compared to the colonies with no exposure

Endangered Species Status Proposed for Rusty Patched Bumble Bee  (Beyond Pesticides, September 23, 2016) The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) has proposed listing the rusty patched bumble bee as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). This is a victory for environmental groups who have fought to protect the rusty patched bumble bee from widespread threats such as habitat loss and pesticide use. 

Over Two Million Bees Killed after Aerial Mosquito Spraying in South Carolina (Beyond Pesticides, September 2, 2016) Sprayed with the very toxic organophosphate Naled. "Naled is an organophosphate insecticide with the highest acute toxicity of any mosquitocide. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Naled can cause cholinesterase (an enzyme necessary to the transmission of nerve impulses) inhibition in humans, meaning that it can overstimulate the nervous system causing nausea, dizziness, confusion, and, at very high exposures (e.g., accidents or major spills), respiratory paralysis and death. Naled is highly toxic to honey bees."I guess they will have to go to court and sue for damages. I have a feeling the compensation will not come by itself. PANNA Pesticide Database indicates that,besides being a cholinesterase inhibitor (toxic to the nervous system, Naled is a development/reproductive toxins and has not been tested for endocrine disruption. Better options for mosquito control.

Half of the Total Decline in Wild Bees throughout the UK Linked to Use of Neonics (Beyond Pesticides, August 18, 2016)  Decline of wild bee populations is linked to the use of toxic, systemic neonicotinoid (neonic) pesticides used on oilseed rape (canola), according to new research done by a team of scientists at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology in the United Kingdom.The study, Impacts of neonicotinoid use on long-term population changes in wild bees in England, published in the journal Nature Communications, analyzed 18 years of UK national wild bee distribution data for 62 different species, and related it to amounts of neonicotinoid use. NOTE: Interesting for Saskatchewan as canola is a major user of neonic seed treatment.

Study Finds Neonicotinoids Cause Compound-Specific Harm to Bumblebees (Beyond Pesticides, May 2, 2016) The study, published in Scientific Reports, looked at field-relevant levels (2.5 parts per billion) of imidaclopridthiamethoxam, and clothianidin, and found compound-specific effects at all levels, including within individual bee cells, individual bees, and whole colonies in semi-field conditions.

Chlorpyrifos Reduces Memory and Learning in Exposed Bees (Beyond Pesticides, March 4, 2016) Honey bees experience a learning and memory deficit after ingesting small doses of the insecticide chlorpyrifos, potentially threatening their success and survival, according to a study in New Zealand, . Chlorpyrifos is a highly neurotoxic organophosphate pesticide used worldwide on crops to protect against insects and mites.Chlorpyrifos is still used in Edmonton, AB, for mosquito control, in Regina and many Saskatchewan municipalities as a basal spray in the fall for elm beetle control and still used in agriculture.

Bayer Concurs with EPA Findings on Certain Neonicotinoid Hazards to Honey Bees (Beyond Pesticides, January 14, 2016)  A spokesman for Bayer CropScience said the neonic-selling giant has reviewed the assessment and found it to be “quite good and scientifically sound,” according to a news report. The Guardian is reporting that Bayer will be proposing new protections for pollinators... This is a stark turnaround from Bayer’s statement last week,...”

Native Bees Found to Have Residues of Pesticides Linked to Their Steep Decline (Beyond Pesticides, November 12, 2015. Native bes are exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides, as well as other pesticides, at significant rates.The study tested for 122 different pesticides. According to study findings, 72% of bees tested positive for pesticide residues, raising concerns for the potential for unintended pesticides exposures where land uses overlap or are in proximity to one another. 

Study Finds Neonics “Severely Affect” Health of Honey Bee Queens (Beyond Pesticides, October 20, 2015. Neither the European Union nor U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study the impacts of pesticides on queen health before allowing a pesticide to market. More queens died, they layed less worker eggs, stored less spermatozoa and had larger ovaries.

Country-wide Field Study Links Pollinator Decline to Pesticide Use  (Beyond Pesticides, August 26, 2015) A study performed by the Food and Environment Research Agency (FERA) in the United Kingdom (UK) provides evidence of confirming the link between neonicotinoid pesticides and continually increasing honey bee colony losses on a landscape level.

Bee crisis: Are mites or neonics the real culprit? Pesticide firms use tobacco tactics to sell products, beekeeper says. (By Janet Thomson, Manmeet Ahluwalia, CBC News Posted: Aug 09, 2015 5:00 AM ET Last Updated: Aug 09, 2015 5:00 AM ET)  Industry spokespeople have been candid over the years. Here is the thought process: every day they can delay regulating or reducing use on a product, by whatever means, is more money in their pocket. More rambling in the news item

Bumper Canola Crop Expected in the UK Even Without Bee-Toxic Neonics (Beyond Pesticides, August 5, 2015) The United Kingdom (UK) is poised to harvest higher than expected yields of winter oilseed rape (canola) in its first neonicotinoid-free growing season since the European moratorium on neonicotinoids went into place in 2013.

Neonicotinoids Hinder Bee’s Ability to Smell Flowers (Beyond Pesticides, June 29, 2015)...'a neonicotinoid pesticide, at sublethal doses, harms this odor memory formation,” Chinese Academy of Science’s Ken Tan, who led the study, told CBS News in an email interview.' 'Published in Nature on June 18, 2015, the study finds that “adults that ingested a single imidacloprid dose as low as 0.1 ng/bee had significantly reduced olfactory learning acquisition, which was 1.6-fold higher in control bees. Bees exposed as larvae to a total dose of 0.24 ng/bee had significantly impaired olfactory learning when tested as adults; control bees exhibited up to 4.8-fold better short-term learning acquisition.” Researchers conclude that this sublethal cognitive deficit caused by low dose exposure to neonicotinoids on a broad range of bee species is cause for further study.

Canadian Senate Committee Report Finds Neonicotinoids Play Role in Bee Mortality (Beyond Pesticides, May 29, 2015) A report released by the Canadian Senate’s Committee on Agriculture and Forestry this week acknowledges that neonicotinoids are harmful to bees, although it adds that more scientific data is needed before making any policies in response. The Canadian report, titled “The Importance of Bee Health to Sustainable Food Production in Canada,” highlights different stressors that cause harm to bees, one of which includes neonicotinoid insecticides.

EPA’s “New” Restrictions Fail to Protect Honey Bees as Promised (Beyond Pesticides, June 1, 2015)  The reality is that the proposal will only result in modest changes to pesticide labels. EPA’s new rules contain only a temporary ban on foliar applications of acutely bee-toxic pesticide products, including neonicotinoid class insecticides, during bloom and when a beekeeper is on site and under contract. See below for new study indicating that wild bees are not protected by such limited measures.

Wild Bees’ Numbers Plummet as Pesticide Use Increases (Beyond Pesticides, June 9, 2015) Study done in New York apple orchards. "the overall impact of pesticides on wild bees was found to be highest in generations following pesticide exposure, indicating that pesticides affect bee reproduction or offspring. Further, researchers found that fungicides, widely regarded as having low toxicity to bees, had a measurable impact on wild bee abundance.

Bees May Become Addicted to Nicotine-Like Pesticides, Study Finds, The Guardian, 22 April,2015. Bees have a preference for sugar solutions that are laced with the pesticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, possibly indicating they can become hooked on the chemicals.

Sierra Club discovers that the PMRA just registered a couple of new neonics. (August 2014)  Both products contain the active ingredient clothianidin.

Neonicotinoid Update - Canada. June 2014

New Tests Find Bee-killing Pesticides in ‘bee-friendly’ Plants sold in Portland, ME Garden Centers (Organic Consumers Association, June 25, 2014) in Home Depot (NYSE: HD), Lowe’s (NYSE: LOW) and Walmart (NYSE: WMT) stores. “Our data indicate that many plants sold in nurseries and garden stores across the U.S. and Canada (Vancouver, BC; London, ON;Montreal, QC) are being pre-treated with systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, making them potentially toxic to pollinators,” said Timothy Brown, Ph.D., co-author of the report from the Pesticide Research Institute. The study and report:Gardeners Beware (2014)  Friends of the Earth Bee-Action Campaign  Pesticides linked to bee deaths must be banned, scientists sayNeonicotinoids, fipronil linked to ecosystem damage in new report By Aleksandra Sagan (CBC News,Jun 24, 2014) includes video.

New Four-Year Scientific Analysis: Systemic Pesticides Pose Global Threat to Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (Press Release from the Task Force on Systemic Pesticides, 24 June 2014) The analysis, known as the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA),  to be published in the peer reviewed Journal Environment Science and Pollution Research, finds that neonics pose a serious risk of harm to honeybees and other pollinators such as butterflies and to a wide range of other invertebrates such as earthworms and vertebrates such as birds.

The Rise of Systemic Insecticides: What does it mean for agriculture, pollinators, and the environment at large? by Pierre Mineau, PhD, principal senior scientist at Pierre Mineau Consulting, Ottawa, Canada. Dr. Mineau is a world renowned environmental toxicologist who co-wrote the report,The Impact of the Nation’s Most Widely Used Insecticides on Birds.(Beyond Pesticides, 19 May 2014) 

Bee Larvae Adversely Affected by Mix of Pesticides and Inert Ingredients (Beyond Pesticides, February 6, 2014 The average bee hive and the food that it contains for the hive population it supports has a veritable soup of pesticides combined in every which way imaginable. This chemical soup that makes its way into the food for not only the adult bees, but also the developing larvae. “The mix” of the many chemicals in the environment is what pose a significant threat to honey bee survival.“All pesticides at hive-residue levels triggered a significant increase in larval mortality compared to untreated larvae by over two fold, with a strong increase after 3 days of exposure.” The synergistic effects in most combinations of the pesticides amplified these mortality rates around the four-day mark. . More concerning, however, were the results focusing on the allegedly “inert” ingredient, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. The study found that, “Even for the lowest concentration of this inert ingredient, the estimated time to cause 50% larval mortality was 4 days.”  N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone is currently registered in Canada as a pesticide formulant/inert. It is on list 3 (formulants that do not meet the criteria of any of the other lists) of the 2010 formulants list.

Multiple Accounts of Honey Bee Death and Damage Continue (Beyond Pesticides, April 24, 2014) massive hive die off after almond pollination in California. EPA emergency meeting called. 

Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral...(November 28,2013) Neonicotinoid insecticides affect the immune system and promote viral replication.

Pesticides Linked to Disease Susceptibility in Bees, Effects on Plant Reproduction (Beyond Pesticides, July 29, 2013)  Researchers found 35 different pesticides in pollen, with samples containing, on average, nine different pesticides ranging  in classes from oxadiazinesneonicotinoids,carbamates, cyclodienes, formamidinesorganophosphates and pyrethroids. Of these, the report links eight pesticides as increasing the risk of Nosema gut parasite infestations. Researchers most frequently found fungicides in pollen samples, particularly chlorothanlonil, which is a broad spectrum fungicide ubiquitously used on apples and other crops. The presence of fungicides is of particular concern. Not only do fungicides increase risks of infection with deadly Nosema parasites, but they also generally do not carry warning labels to tell farmers to refrain from application while crops are blossoming and bees are foraging, that is, when bees are most susceptible to pesticide poisoning.  Another study published just last week shows that the decline of a single pollinator species significantly impairs plant reproduction.

New Study Exposes Range of Harm from Neonicotinoid Pesticides (Beyond Pesticides, June 18, 2013)

50,000 Bumblebees Dead After Neonicotinoid Pesticide Use in Oregon (Beyond Pesticides, June 24, 2013) The neonicotinoid pesticide dinotefuran was used on nearby trees. As of August 11. 2013, this insecticide is not registered in Canada. 

Pesticide makes bees forget the scent for food, new study finds. Damian Carrington
The Guardian, Wednesday 27 March 2013 18.30 GMT     Neonicotinoids block part of brain bees use for learning, leaving them unable to make link between floral scents and nectar

3 New Studies Link Bee Decline to Bayer Pesticide—By Tom Philpott. Mother Jones. Thu Mar. 29, 2012 5:40 PM PDT

Save the Bees   BAYER pesticides causing global bee decline International campaign by the Coalition against BAYER Dangers (ongoing)

Pesticides and Honey Bees: State of the Science (PANNA report, May 2012)

2012 Beyond Pesticides National Pesticide Forum: Healthy Communities. Several speakers give an overview of the bee collapse disorder science. videos of the conference.

Killing Bees: Are Government and Industry Responsible? video

Report Shows Honeybee Decline Is Global  (Beyond Pesticides, March 14, 2011) Scientists working for the United Nations (UN) reveal in a report published March 10, 2011 that the collapse of honeybee colonies is now a global phenomenon that could have devastating consequences.

Researchers Link Viruses, Genes and Pesticides to Bee Colony Collapse (Beyond Pesticides, September 8, 2009 -Posted in Chemicals, Imidacloprid, Pollinators, Wildlife/Endangered).

Several SK beekeepers' hives were affected by what seemed like Colony Collapse Disorder in 2007. There are many factors negatively affecting bee colonies. These vary from the importation of bees which are not necessarily adapted to our conditions (such as from New Zealand) to a series of individual and hive parasites. Some hives could also be stressed from frequent transportation, from all the antibiotics and pesticides used to control mites and other problems in hives, or from the inadequacy of the winter diet fed by the beekeepers. This article gives an overview of the problem.

Organic farmers have also pointed out that the commercial size of the brooding cells in the combs are larger than in wild bees and that the extra time it takes young bees to come out encourages their infection by mites: http://www.bushfarms.com/bees.htm

What kills our bees and pollinators (Hjertaas April 2007)

Bees Thrive Away from Cropland. (Pennsylvania, Nov. 2007)

Bee the Change: Tips & Tools For Protecting Honey Bees  (PANNA, no date)