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Water

Pesticides in SK Water

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More on neonicotinoids at http://www.snapinfo.ca/issues/bee-die-off,  http://www.snapinfo.ca/info/fact-sheets and http://www.snapinfo.ca/info/wildlife/birds

Widespread Use and Frequent Detection of Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Wetlands of Canada's Prairie Pothole Region (Anson R. Main,et al including Allan J. Cessna and Christy A. Morrissey. PLOS. March 26, 2014) scientific journal article." In spring 2012 prior to seeding,36% of wetlands contained at least one neonicotinoid. Detections increased to 62% in summer 2012, declined to 16% in fall, and increased to 91% the following spring 2013 after ice-off...Wetlands situated in barley, canola and oat fields consistently contained higher mean concentrations of neonicotinoids than in grasslands, but no individual crop singularly influenced overall detections or concentrations."

Pesticide 'contaminating' Prairie wetlands: scientist (Jan 06, 2014.CBC). Researcher suggests pesticide may be linked to insect, bird declines. "This is huge" Morrissey said. "The impact on biodiversity could be probably bigger than we've ever seen before if we keep going at this rate." Morrissey said her conservative estimate is 44 per cent of crop land in the Prairies was treated with neonics in the year she reviewed. They are commonly showing up in wetlands in concentrations at least three to four times higher than what has been deemed habitable for insects, in some cases 100 times."upwards of 80 to 90 per cent of the wetlands are contaminated." says Morrisey. 

Pesticides in Surface Drinking Water Supplies of the Northern Great Plains. 2007. David B. Donald, Allan J. Cessna et al.

  • Tested for 45 pesticides.
  • Detected 2 insecticides and 27 herbicides in reservoir water.
  • Drinking water contained 3-15 herbicides (average 6.4) at levels below respective guidelines of the 7 that have guidelines.

Seasonal variation of concentrations of herbicides and major inorganic ions in farm dugouts.Cessna A and Elliot A. Water research Institute, Saskatoon. Fourth international symposium "rural health and safety in a changing world".October 18-22 1998,  click on Chemicals Exposure, Toxicology and Human Health - presentation O 20.Pesticide levels increase to high levels at turnover time in fall. 

Magnitude and Persistence of Herbicide Residues In Farm Dugouts and Ponds in the Canadian prairies. Raj Grover, Don T Waite, Allan J Cessna et al. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Vol. 16 no 4 PP 638-643

Mobilization of pesticides on an agricultural landscape flooded by a torrential storm. David B. Donald, et al. Vol. 24, No 1, pp 2 -10, 2005. 278 kg of herbicide were mobilized into rain and by runoff into surface waters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Vol. 24 no 1 PP 2-10.

Occurrence of Pesticides in Prairie Lakes in Saskatchewan in Relation to Drought and Salinity. David B. Donald  and Jim Syrgiannis. Environment Canada. 1995. Journal of Environmental Quality. Vol. 24 No.2, March April 1995 PP 266 270. Pesticides are more prevalent in semi-pernmanent wetlands. 

Diffuse Geographic Distribution of Herbicides in Northern Prairie Wetlands. 2001. David B. Dodnald et al. Environment Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Vol. 20 no 2 PP 273-279.The overall detection frequency of 10 commonly used herbicides was not significantly different among wildlife habitat with no pesticide use, farms with no pesticide use, conventional farms, and minimum till farms.

Agricultural Pesticides Threaten the Ecological Integrity of Northern Prairie Wetlands. 1999. Davind B. donald, Jim Syrgiannis, et al. Environment Canada. The proportion of wetlands in which at least one pesticide exceeded Canadian guidelines for the protection of aquatic life increased from 0% to 60% over the same precipitation range ( 21 mm to 90 mm during the previous 15 days).The number of wetlands subjected to pesticide levels that exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life was significant ranging from 152,000 to 424,000 wetlands or 9 to 24%, respectively, of the total.

see also neonicotinoids, glyphosate

USGS Report Shows Dozens of Pesticides Consistently Found in Midwestern Streams, Underscoring the Need for Organic Practices   (Beyond Pesticides, August 22, 2017) Streams in the Midwestern U,S. are polluted with complex mixtures averaging over 50 pesticides each, according to a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report published earlier this month. This is the latest and also most extensive study on pesticide contamination in U.S. streams to date. SNAP Comment: There are a few Saskatchewan studies of only a few pesticides each (Canada does not have the same resources as the US for testing) also indicating widespread contamination in Saskatchewan. Some Saskatchewan studies under Pesticides in SK Water. Complex mixtures of dissolved pesticides show potential aquatic toxicity in a synoptic study of Midwestern U.S. streams (Science of The Total Environment,online 9 August 2017)  In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site. Relatively few pesticides in water—atrazineacetochlormetolachlor, (the insecticides) imidaclopridfipronilorganophosphate insecticides, and the fungicide carbendazim—were predicted to be major contributors to potential toxicity. Agricultural streams had the highest potential for effects on plants, especially in May–June, corresponding to high spring-flush herbicide concentrations. Urban streams had higher detection frequencies and concentrations of insecticides and most fungicides than in agricultural streams, and higher potential for invertebrate toxicity, which peaked during July–August. SNAP Comment: I wonder how many pesticides they actually tested for (i.e. were there any negativ findings?) I suspect that the reason only 7 pesticides were major contributors to potential toxicity is that they are the most heavily used. Hopefully this assertion is examined in the paper.I suspect that most of what is used would be found in an area's streams in Canada, should we check. However we re still in the dark as to pesticides used in each province.

Carcinogenic Contaminant in Common Pesticide   (Beyond Pesticides, April 27, 2017) Multinational chemical companies Dow Chemical Company and Shell Chemical Company knowingly sold and marketed fumigants contaminated with a cancer-causing chemical that had a strong propensity to leach into and remain in groundwater... The contaminant of concern, 1,2,3-trichloropropene (TCP), was a manufacturing by-product found in Dow’s Telone and Shell’s D-D fumigant pesticide products with the active ingredient 1,3-Dichloropropene. The products, used to kill soil-dwelling nematodes, are toxic in their own right, but contained TCP in their formulation from the 1940s until the mid-1980s. EWG’s report details widespread contamination of drinking water in California’s agricultural regions, with detections found in 562 wells, and 94 public water systems identifying TCP above legal limits. Thirty-seven additional public water systems serving nearly 4 million U.S. residents throughout the country were also found to contain TCP. SNAP Comment: Canada has much less money for testing than the US and, as a result, many fewer chemicals have been tested for. I don't know if TCP has ever been tested for iin Canada but I do know that Telone has been used...

Study Finds Neonicotinoids in Water Straight from the Tap  (Beyond Pesticides, April 5, 2017) A new study, Occurrence of Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Finished Drinking Water and Fate during Drinking Water Treatment, has detected neonicotinoids, a class of insecticides known for their detrimental effects on bees, in treated drinking water. The study authors “report for the first time the presence of three neonicotinoids in finished drinking water and demonstrate their general persistence during conventional water treatment.” In contrast, the Iowa City water treatment methods (granular activated carbon filtration) result in substantially lower levels of the neonicotinoids. SNAP Comment: Thankfully for Regina and Moose Jaw residents, our water is carbon filtered, which should help in removing some glyphosate. Everyone else beware. Buy a carbon water filter.

Glyphosate Sprayed on GMO Crops Linked to Lake Erie’s Toxic Algae Bloom (EcoWatch, Lorraine Chow, 5 July 2016)  "Through his own and others' research, Spiese found that depending on the types of metal in the soil, glyphosate does release phosphorus", and phosphorus is a known link to algi blooms. RoundUp ​is a phosphonoglycine type of chemical, meaning that it contains phosphorus (P). A lot of RoundUp used in the watershed is being detected in adjacent waterways particularly in the spring, 'The researchers also found that the blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in the lake are capable of using phosophonates.' "It turns out that many cyanobacteria present in Lake Erie have the genes allowing the uptake of phosphonates, and these cyanobacteria can grow using glyphosate and other phosphonates as a sole source of phosphorus," Bullerjahn said. Also filed under glyphosate

Insecticides Similar to Nicotine Found in about Half of Sampled Streams across the United States 8/18/2015.U.S. updated US research direct link to neonicotinoids in water, or copy and paste the title into the search box at the main site. Geological Survey. USGS discovered insecticides known as neonicotinoids in a little more than half of both urban and agricultural streams sampled across the United States and Puerto Rico, according to a study by the agency published today in Environmental Chemistry. “In the study, neonicotinoids occurred throughout the year in urban streams while pulses of neonicotinoids were typical in agricultural streams during crop planting season,” said USGS research chemist Michelle Hladik, the report’s lead author. Also filed under pesticide fact sheets under neonicotinoids 

Sewage Sludge (Biosolids) Contaminants Move to Groundwater (Beyond Pesticides, May 14, 2014) Chemical contaminants are sufficiently mobile and persistent that they can easily be transported to groundwater, with implication for local drinking water. Test for 57 contaminants of emerging concerns (chemicals that are increasingly being discovered in waters) found chemicals ranging from antibacterial soaps, chemical cleaners, cosmetics, fragrances, and prescription drugs, such as the antidepressant Prozac and the blood thinner Warfarin, which had migrated down the soil column. In fact, 10 of the chemicals examined migrated to depths of 7 to 50 inches over 18 months after treated sewage sludge was applied. (Colorado study)

USGS Documents Threat of Pesticides to Waterways; Farm Bill Amendment Undermines Clean Water Act (Beyond Pesticides, May 20, 2013)  The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released a national assessment that shows the distribution and trends of pesticide use from 1992-2009, providing visible evidence that contamination of pesticides in our nation’s water is clearly a continuing threat.

Ontario study finds an 80% drop in toxic lawn pesticides found in urban streams and creeks since the province-wide pesticide ban  June 10, 2010  And for an audio recording of the news, please click here.

Dioxins from Triclosan Increasingly Found in Water (Beyond Pesticides, May 20, 2010.Posted in Antibacterial, Triclosan, Water) Triclosan is one of the most detected chemicals in US waterways. It is an endocrine disruptor with specific effect on male an dfemale hormones and the thyroid gland. It is extensively used in consumer goods and triclosan and its metabolites are present in, fish, umbilical cord blood and human milk and urine. It produces 4 specific dioxins which have increased 200-300%."In the most current sediments, these triclosan-derived dioxins account for about 30 percent of the total dioxin mass.” Dioxins are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in humans and other animals, especially in fatty tissue. Dioxin can be highly carcinogenic and can cause severe health problems.

Threatened Waters Turning the Tide on Pesticide Contamination. (Beyond Pesticides, October 2006). Note for Canadians: US environmental studies consistently measure many more pesticides than we study in Canada, because they have more funds. In Canada, research has also been hampered by the fact that we had no pesticide sales or use database. The Canadian risks of water contamination are therefore likely to be underestimated.

Leaching Potential (LP) Rankings for Herbicide Products Listed in the Alberta Crop Protection 2000 Handbook  In this document you will see that 2,4-D has a reasonably high leaching potential, and RoundUp formulations are in the middle. reference: Hill, B.D., Miller, J.J., Harker, K.N., Byers, S.D., Inaba, D.J., and Zhang, C. (2000). "Estimating the relative leaching potential of herbicides in Alberta soils.", Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 35(4), pp. 693-710.