• Learn About Pesticides in Foods
  • Link to SK Organic Resources
  • Learn to Keep Insects Out of your Crops
  • Weeds Can Be Managed Without Chemical Pesticides
  • LIving Near Fields Increases Pesticide Exposure
  • SNAP Display at Event
  • Learn About Colony Collapse Disorder and How to Protect Bees
  • Learn to Manage Pests Naturally
  • SNAP Tour of Organic Vegetable Garden
  • Driving Near Recently Sprayed Fields Exposes People to Pesticides

Archives for 2023

Friday, March 10, 2023

Strawberries Lose Their Sweetness, Aroma, and Taste after Being Sprayed with Chemical Fungicides, Study Finds

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Strawberries Lose Their Sweetness, Aroma, and Taste after Being Sprayed with Chemical Fungicides, Study Finds

(Beyond Pesticides, March 1, 2023) Fungicides sprayed on chemically farmed strawberries reduce their flavor quality, according to research published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry this week. 

Differences in sugar content are not minute, with the difenconazole expressing 10% less fructose, and boscalid group 25% less.  At the same time, levels of titratable acid increase in the fungicide treatments, and display the lowest sugar-acid ratio; the control group expresses the highest.   Treated strawberries show lower levels of flavonoid content and a lower number of total phenols compared to the control. Analysis found evidence that treated strawberries also have higher levels of oxidative stress

Filed under fungicides and food/nutrition

Friday, March 10, 2023

Father’s Exposure to Toxic Chemicals in the Workplace Increases Risk of Heart Disease in Infants

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Father’s Exposure to Toxic Chemicals in the Workplace Increases Risk of Heart Disease in Infants

(Beyond Pesticides, February 23, 2023) A father’s exposure to occupational (work-related) chemicals, including pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, formaldehyde studied), around the time of his partner’s pregnancy, has an association with a higher risk of infant congenital heart defects (CHDs), according to a Japanese study published in Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. The prevalence of infant CHDs is one of the most common genetic (congenital) diseases worldwide.

filed under children 2 and cardiovascular

Friday, March 10, 2023

Neonicotinoids Combined with Other Pesticides Elevate Hazards to Honey Bee

Neonicotinoids Combined with Other Pesticides Elevate Hazards to Honey Bee  (Beyond Pesticides, February 22, 2023)   '

Among the eight pesticides tested, honey bee toxicity was as follows from most to least toxic: the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam, the organophosphate insecticide dimethoate, the carbamate insecticide methomyl, the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides permethrin, and then cypermethrin, the triazole fungicide tetraconazole, and the synthetic pyrethroids cyfluthrin and then esfenvalerate. These results did change based on different treatment lengths, yet thiamethoxam was found to remain the most toxic throughout all studies.

In the study, scientists evaluate a total of 98 different mixtures, from binary combinations of two different chemicals to octonary combinations of all eight different pesticides. Within these tests, approximately 30% of these were found to be synergistic to honey bees, exhibiting toxicity greater than each individual material in the mixture.

Perhaps the most concerning interaction came from combinations that included thiamethoxam and the fungicide tetraconazole. Any variation of pesticide combinations that include these two chemicals have a roughly 55% chance of exhibiting synergistic toxicity to honey bees.

filed unde Bee Die-off mixture effects and fungicides

Friday, March 10, 2023

Glyphosate Weed Killers Reduce Crop Yields and Hamper Climate Mitigation Efforts

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Glyphosate Weed Killers Reduce Crop Yields and Hamper Climate Mitigation Efforts

(Beyond Pesticides, February 15, 2023) Finnish study of two separate experiments on the grass Festuca pratensis, an important forage crop grown for grazing animals throughout the world. 

For all experiments and plot variables, none saw glyphosate use have a positive impact on yield or biomass.   even among uncut grasses, those grown in glyphosate-sprayed soils showed the lowest root biomass. Chlorophyll content also followed this pattern, with those in the most intensively cut grouping showing the lowest content if also grown in soils where glyphosate was applied.

“This demonstrates a tremendous limitation to the potential carbon binding and storage belowground when soils are polluted by pesticide."

filed under glyphosate 2 and climate change

Friday, March 10, 2023

Harming Wildlife, Pesticides in Waterways Run into the Great Lakes Year-Round

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Harming Wildlife, Pesticides in Waterways Run into the Great Lakes Year-Round

(Beyond Pesticides, February 14, 2023) The waterways that flow into the Great Lakes are experiencing year-round pesticide contamination that exceeds benchmarks meant to protect aquatic life, according to research published in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

It is evident that the toxic soup that many U.S. waterways are carrying is unsustainable and threatens the foundation of many food chains. Imbalances in aquatic environments can ripple throughout the food web, creating trophic cascades that further exacerbate health and environmental damage.

filed under water

Monday, February 6, 2023

Common Fungicide Adds to Growing List of Pesticides Linked to Gastrointestinal and Microbiome Damage

fungicide azoxystrobin (AZO)

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Common Fungicide Adds to Growing List of Pesticides Linked to Gastrointestinal and Microbiome Damage

(Beyond Pesticides, January 26, 2023) A study published in Food Safety and Toxicology finds that the widely used fungicide azoxystrobin (AZO), used in food production and turf management, can disrupt the function of the intestinal (colonic) barrier responsible for the absorption of nutrients and defense against harmful substances.  The results reveal AZO exposure altered the metabolic profile of microbes in the gut, inducing gut dysbiosis, leading to structural damage of the colon and colonic inflammatory response. Although the L-AZO (low dose) treatment group experiences no changes in body weight compared to the control group, the H-AZO (high dose) treatment group has significantly reduced body weight and weight gain. SNAP comment: Azoxystrobin does not seem to be currently registered by the PMRA in Canada.

filed under fungicides and digestive tract/microbiome

Monday, February 6, 2023

Western Bumblebee Declines a Result of Pesticides and Climate Change, No End in Sight

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Western Bumblebee Declines a Result of Pesticides and Climate Change, No End in Sight

(Beyond Pesticides, January 25, 2023) Populations of the western bumblebee are in free fall, with 57% declines across the species’ historical range, finds new research led by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey. These data are in line with trends for other once common bumblebees in the United States, like the rusty patched and American, of which the former is now listed as endangered and the latter is under consideration.   In regard to pesticide stressors, the study focuses only on the application of neonicotinoid pesticides within the species range. Without considering other pesticide stressors, occupancy in regions where neonicotinoid applications occurred are 35% lower than areas where these chemicals are not sprayed. Not only are they lower, but scientists found trends to indicate that local populations decrease alongside increasing neonicotinoid use.

filed under neonicotinoids 2 and insects/neonicotinoids

Monday, February 6, 2023

Garden pesticides are contributing to British songbird decline, study finds

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Garden pesticides are contributing to British songbird decline, study finds (Helena Horton, The Guardian, 6 february 2023)
'The study was published in the journal ??Science of the Total Environment.
'The experiment, which surveyed 615 gardens in Britain, found 25% fewer house sparrows when glyphosate was used regularly. This is an ingredient found in commonly used herbicide brands such as Roundup or Gallup.
Slug pellets also seemed to have an impact on bird sightings; in gardens where metaldehyde slug pellets were used, house sparrow numbers were down by almost 40%.
Prof Dave Goulson, of the school of life sciences at the University of Sussex, said: “The UK has 22 million gardens, which collectively could be a fantastic refuge for wildlife, but not if they are overly tidy and sprayed with poisons. We just don’t need pesticides in our gardens. Many towns around the world are now pesticide free.”'

filed under wildlife section//birds and glyphosate 2

Thursday, January 26, 2023

NCAP s Pest Management Guide

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NCAP's Pest Management Guide full of resources for identification of plant diseases, insects and weeds, management inclding alternatives and much more. Tailored ot the US NorthWest but much information is applicable elsewhere. 

filed under alternatives

Thursday, January 26, 2023

Neonicotinoid Insecticides Adversely Affect Nervous System Health, According to Study

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Neonicotinoid Insecticides Adversely Affect Nervous System Health, According to Study

(Beyond Pesticides, January 19, 2023) Chinese study. 'Research published in Environmental Health Perspectives finds the presence of nine various neonicotinoids (neonics) and six neonic metabolites within human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Researchers collected CSF samples from patients experiencing similar symptoms with a different disease/clinical diagnosis (i.e., “mostly viral encephalitis, encephalitis other than viral encephalitis, leukemia, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral laceration, urinary tract infection, respiratory failure, pulmonary tuberculosis, and posterior circulation ischemia”). 

Ninety-nine percent of the 314 CSF samples contain at least one neonic. Of the 314 CSF samples, nine percent (28) have a single neonic compound, 84 percent (265) have between 2 and 6, and six percent (19) have between 7 and 10 neonic compounds. Nine of these neonics in CSF samples are nitenpyram (NIT), thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, acetamiprid (ACE), thiacloprid, clothianidin, flonicamid, imidaclothiz, and sulfoxaflor. Additionally, six neonic metabolites are present in CSF: N-desmethyl-thiamethoxam, olefin-imidacloprid, 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid (N-dm-ACE), thiacloprid-amide, and 6-chloronicotinic acid.

filed under neonicotinoids 2 and nervous system effects

Thursday, January 26, 2023

Growing Sunflowers Near Honey Bee Colonies Helps Reduce Mite Problems

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Growing Sunflowers Near Honey Bee Colonies Helps Reduce Mite Problems

(Beyond Pesticides, January 18, 2023) Sunflower plantings have the potential to significantly reduce mite infestations in nearby honey bee colonies, according to research recently published in the Journal of Economic Entomology by researchers with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

For every doubling of sunflower crop production, models employed show a nearly 1/3 decrease in varroa mite infestation. For the fall pollen feeding experiment, colonies fed sunflower pollen saw a 2.75 fold reduction in the intensity of Varroa infestation compared to the artificial pollen treatment. For the spring feeding, Varroa was found in only one-third of hives sampled. Neither the fall nor spring feed experiment, or the individual caged bee experiment saw a significant effect on viral loading or Nosema prevalence, however.

filed under alterntives/insects and invertebrates/additional information and Bee Die-Off

Thursday, January 26, 2023

Glyphosate Exposure and Urinary Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Agricultural Health Study

evidence supporting an association between glyphosate exposure and oxidative stress in humans

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Glyphosate Exposure and Urinary Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Agricultural Health Study   (Journal of the National Cancer Institute, djac242, https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djac242, January 2023)

Our findings contribute to the weight of evidence supporting an association between glyphosate exposure and oxidative stress in humans and may inform evaluations of the carcinogenic potential of this herbicide.

filed under glyphosate and cancer/links

Wednesday, January 25, 2023

Pesticides Not Only Linked to Parkinson’s Disease Development, But Accelerating Disease Symptoms

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Pesticides Not Only Linked to Parkinson’s Disease Development, But Accelerating Disease Symptoms

(Beyond Pesticides, January 12, 2023) Exposure to certain pesticides among individuals diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can increase the risk of symptom progression. According to a study published in Science of the Total Environmentnearly 20 percent of pesticides associated with the onset of PD also increase the risk of faster decline in motor and non-motor function.   Using a geographic information system (GIS) tool to gather information on ambient exposure to pesticides in residences and workplaces via California Pesticide Use Report records and land use records. The researchers examine the association between 53 pesticides with links to PD onset to determine PD symptom progression for five years and 2.7 years (respectively) for two patients.   

Of the pesticides with links to PD onset, ten or ~18.8 percent (i.e., copper sulfate pentahydrate, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid MCPA dimethylamine salt, tribufos, sodium cacodylate, methamidophos, ethephon, propargite, bromoxynil octanoate, monosodium methanearsonate MSMA, and dicamba) have associations with faster symptom progression. 

SNAP comment:  dicamba is used in most lawn care herbicide formulations. There are currently 83 copper sulfate, 95 MCPA , 4 ethephon,107 dicamba,and 0 tribufossodium cacodylate, methamidophos, propargite, bromoxynil octanoate, monosodium methanearsonate MSMA products registered in Canada although some have been historically registered. 

filed under nervous system effects/Parkinson's

Friday, January 20, 2023

Study Connects Neonicotinoids to Liver Damage Ignored by EPA

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Study Connects Neonicotinoids to Liver Damage Ignored by EPA

(Beyond Pesticides, January 11, 2022) Neonicotinoid insecticides can have detrimental effects on liver health, according to research published in the Journal of Hazardous Materials. (Chinese study)

 Scientists determined the amount of eight neonicotinoids in bile samples, including acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam.  

Researchers found that neonicotinoids are neither metabolized by the liver nor excreted by urine. Of all samples taken, at least one neonicotinoid was detected in 99% of individuals tested. However, different neonicotinoids were found to act in different ways. While the detection of acetamiprid was low (1% of samples), 97% contained nitenpyram. The widely used insecticide dinotefuran was detected in 86% of bile. Detections did not appear to differ between participants of different health backgrounds.(cancer vs control).

The results led scientists to believe that neonicotinoids found in bile will eventually be absorbed again by the intestines, make their way into blood, and eventually one’s liver. Biomarkers tested, such as cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile acids, were found to correlate with higher concentrations of certain neonicotinoids. Of the various neonicotinoids, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin were found to pose the greatest risk to liver health.

filded under neonicotinoids and liver

Friday, January 20, 2023

Pollinator Decline Leads to Crop Losses, Malnutrition, and Highest Threat to Low-Income

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Pollinator Decline Leads to Crop Losses, Malnutrition, and Highest Threat to Low-Income

(Beyond Pesticides, January 10, 2023) Pollinator losses are responsible for reducing the global production of nuts, fruits, and vegetables by 3-5%, and this loss of healthy, nutrient-dense food is resulting in over 425,000 excess deaths each year, according to research published late last year in Environmental Health Perspectives.

filed under terrestrial invertebrates

Friday, January 20, 2023

Insecticidal Bed Nets Contribute to Resistance in Bed Bug Populations

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Insecticidal Bed Nets Contribute to Resistance in Bed Bug Populations

(Beyond Pesticides, January 5, 2022) The use of insecticidal bed nets (IBNs) to prevent mosquito bites in malaria-endemic communities can result in resistance developing in secondary pests like bed bugs, according to research published in Parasites and Vectors. Decreased efficacy against bed bugs and other non-mosquito pests may result in misuse of both mosquito adulticides and bed nets, hampering efforts to stop the spread of malaria and other insect-borne disease.

filed under resistance/insecticides

Friday, January 20, 2023

Neonicotinoid Insecticides Add to the Growing List of Chemicals that Transfer between Mother and Fetus

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Neonicotinoid Insecticides Add to the Growing List of Chemicals that Transfer between Mother and Fetus

(Beyond Pesticides, January 4, 2022) A study published in Environmental Science and Technology finds neonicotinoids (neonics) and their breakdown products (metabolites), like other chemical pesticide compounds, can readily transfer from mother to fetus. 

 Levels of five neonics (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) and two metabolites of acetamiprid and imidacloprid were measured.

The most abundant neonic in mothers’ serum (MS) and cord serum (CS) samples is imidacloprid, whereas acetamiprid’s metabolite is the most abundant in CS and MS. Both parent and metabolite neonics have a high ransplacental transfer efficiencies (TTE), with imidacloprid having the highest transfer rate (1.61). Even the neonic with the lowest TTE of 0.81, thiamethoxam, is within the high TTE range, indicating proficient placental transfer of these chemicals from mother to fetus. Researchers identify that transplacental transfer of these chemicals mainly occurs through passive mechanisms depending on chemical structure. 

filed under neonicotinoids and children/neonicotinoids

Friday, January 20, 2023

Survey Technique Increases Agricultural Resiliency and Protects Pollinators; Higher Species Diversity in Organic

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Survey Technique Increases Agricultural Resiliency and Protects Pollinators; Higher Species Diversity in Organic

(Beyond Pesticides, December 21, 2022) Imagine plucking a flower and being able to find out every insect that recently visited that plant. By evaluating the environmental DNA (eDNA) left behind by insect pollinators alongside visual assessment surveys, a new study is providing an innovative way for farmers to improve pollination and protect on-farm biodiversity.   Scientists also conducted visual monitoring, whereby an observer stood between two orchard rows and recorded all flower visitors within roughly eight feet of themselves. The two methods of observation provide somewhat differing, yet complimentary results.

filed under terrestrial invertebrates

Friday, January 20, 2023

Integrated Weed Management: Biological Control Options

using goats and cattle for weed control in Sasaktchewan.

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Integrated Weed Management: Biological Control Options (SK Prairie Conservation Action Plan -PCAP) 40 minute Youtube video.

Speaker: Sheena McInnes, Frenchman - Wood River Weed Management Area and SODCAP Presentation summary: The presentation will be mostly a video introduction of two grazing experts speaking on using cows and goats to control weeds.

Lee Sexton started with sheep but found goats more effective and acceptable to SK cattle producers for integrated weed management as they mostly don't eat grass. Lee mentions Leafy Spurge control. He assesses the site and can train his goats to eat the target weeds. sextongc@icloud.ca 

Ralph Corcoran is a trained in holistic manager with cattle and is using the approach to rehabilitate the pastures on his farm. He has had success with controlling absinthe, burdock, thstle and even some leafy spurge by intensively grazing at the right time and rotation. Sheep or goat following cattle work good on Leafy Spurge. "With small paddocks, you can fix one problem at a time. it really works well." Stop the overgrazing. rlcorcoran@sasktel.net

www.holisticmanagement.ca

Wednesday, January 11, 2023

Mother and Child Health: Learning Disorders and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Study Results Released

ADHD and autism

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Mother and Child Health: Learning Disorders and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Study Results Released

(Beyond Pesticide, December 20, 2022) A meta-analysis published in Chemosphere finds prenatal pesticide exposure, or pesticide exposure during pregnancy has a positive association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Particularly, exposure to chemical classes organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides, in addition to the mother’s age during pregnancy (≥30 years old), increased the risk factor of ASD. ADHD risk increases among offspring whose mothers encounter organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) during gestation.

filed under organophosphates, insecticides and nervous system effects/ADHD and autism

Wednesday, January 11, 2023

Denying Science, Manufacturing Doubt: Monsanto/Bayer Promotion and Defense of Glyphosate/Roundup

the core of the pesticide industry public relations playbook

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Denying Science, Manufacturing Doubt: Monsanto/Bayer’s Promotion and Defense of Glyphosate/Roundup

(Beyond Pesticides, December 16, 2022) A report released last week — Merchants of Poison: How Monsanto Sold the World on a Toxic Pesticide — exposes not only Bayer/Monsanto malfeasance in its “promotion” of its glyphosate-based herbicide products, including the notorious Roundup®, but also, the broader landscape of corporate efforts to white- or green-wash products that companies know are harmful to people and the environment. The report was issued by U.S. Right to Know (USRTK, a nonprofit investigative research group focused on promoting transparency for public health), Friends of the Earth (FOE), and Real Food Media. It carries the pithy subtitle, “A case study in disinformation, corrupted science, and manufactured doubt about glyphosate,” a description cited by the Friends of the Earth press release as “at the core of the pesticide industry’s public relations playbook.” 

filed under industry shennigans

Wednesday, January 11, 2023

Ultraviolet Light Researched as a Pest Control Technique

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Ultraviolet Light Researched as a Pest Control Technique

(Beyond Pesticides, December 14, 2022) Ultraviolet (UV-C) light has the potential to successfully manage mite (Tetranychus urticae) populations without reducing yields or resorting to toxic pesticides, according to research published by scientists at University of Florida. “Since very few miticides (sprays) are currently effective in suppressing twospotted spider mites in strawberries, the use of UV light provides an effective physical control method that can be used in fields and in high-tunnel strawberry production systems,” says study author Sriyanka Lahiri, PhD. The findings provide an encouraging technique for farmers, but further investigation is needed to observe the success of this approach in other cropping systems.

flied under alternatives/insects/links 

Wednesday, January 11, 2023

Estrogen-Mediated Cancers in Humans Have Links to Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides

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Estrogen-Mediated Cancers in Humans Have Links to Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides

(Beyond Pesticides, December 13, 2022)  Adding to the science, a review published in Environmental Exposure, Biomonitoring and Exposure Assessment highlights how specific estrogen-mimicking pesticides increase the risk of disease, particularly hormone-related cancers among women (i.e., breast, ovarian, endometrial cancer) and men (i.e., testicular, prostate cancer). Like pesticides, endocrine disruptors are xenobiotic (i.e., chemical substances foreign to an organism or ecosystem). 

Pesticides are one of the most potent xeno-estrogenic compounds, as estrogenic strength and environmental half-life exceed those of other xeno-estrogenic compounds. Focusing on organochlorine pesticides (OCs), the study evaluates the chemical effects on the physiological (anatomic) system to increase cancer risk. Using human studies, researchers assessed how estrogen-medicated cancer develops in women and men. Various OCs, including aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, HCH, DDT, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, phenoxy acid herbicides, and methoxychlor, have associations with hormone-related cancers. 

Despite the ban on many OCs across the globe, these chemicals remain in the environment. Many OCs can exist in the body for at least three to six years, in soil for decades, and in water for at least a century. Moreover, consumption of food and water resources contaminated with OCs can cause these chemicals to bioaccumulate in the body, resulting in the biomagnification of OCs.

filed under cancer/links and insecticides

Thursday, January 5, 2023

Integrated Pest Management and Pesticides on Ontario Golf Courses Full Report

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Integrated Pest Management and Pesticides on Ontario Golf Courses Full Report (www.PreventCancerNow.ca,  November 2020) 

filed under IPM/effectiveness

Thursday, January 5, 2023

Ocean Health: Environmental Pollutants Threaten Humpback Whale Reproduction and Offspring

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Ocean Health: Environmental Pollutants Threaten Humpback Whale Reproduction and Offspring

(Beyond Pesticides, December 6, 2022) Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)—including banned pesticides—present a health risk to humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), according to a study published in Environmental Pollution. Regarding female humpback whales, levels of POPs in blubber are higher in juveniles and subadults than in adults, primarily from the transference of contaminants from the mother to her calf. Organochlorine compounds (OCs), such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are well-known persistent organic pollutants. 

Overall, the most abundant POPs are PCBs, followed by DDTs and chlordane. PCB levels are above the estimated threshold for adverse health effects.   This report demonstrates that exposure to chemical contaminants adversely impacts marine mammal health globally. The study notes specific long-term health concerns among the humpback whale population not described in previous reports, including reproductive toxicity, immune dysfunction, and increased susceptibility to disease.

This article also lists other studies listing chemicals that contaminate marine mammal species BPA (plasticiser), the pesticides triclosan and atrazine, and “inert” ingredients from pesticide products

filed under mammals

Thursday, January 5, 2023

Pest Management Regulatory Agency 2020 2021 Annual Report

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Pest Management Regulatory Agency 2020 2021 Annual Report (Health Canada, 2021)

'Sales of pest control products in Canada have increased from 101.1 million kg of active ingredients (kg a.i.) in 2014 to 121.3 million kg a.i. in 2018 (Figure 2). In 2018, 71.1% of pesticide sales in Canada were agricultural sector products (Figure 3), whereas 24.3% were non-agricultural sector products, and 4.5% were domestic sector products. Figure 2. Quantity of pesticides sold in Canada (2014–2018)  Glyphosate remained the top active ingredient sold in Canada in 2018 (Table 1). Six of the top 10 active ingredients sold in 2018 had been among the top 10 selling active ingredients since 2014. These top 10 active ingredients accounted for 68.7% of all pesticides sold in Canada in 2018. (p.11)

SNAP Comment: An pesticide use increase of 16.65% in the active ingredient glyphosate use in 5 years. Lots of interesting gems in this report

filed under Legislation/regulatory/ Canada