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Pesticide Fact Sheets

Aminopyralid and chloryralid

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Aminopyralid: We Need  to Stop This (No Dig Home blog, 13 June 2019)

After reading this blog post, I did some research on aminopyralid. 

The most concise and objective article I found was ChemicalWatch Factsheet Aminopyralid (Beyond Pesticides)  which recounts several incidents of manure and hay contamination which led to crop losses. 

The PANNA pesticide data base shows mostly ? for major effects, likely because the chemical has has been registered reasonably recently (2005 in the US, 2006-12 in Canada)   and there have been no independent reviews. Also note that the US registration was conditional which means that all the mandatory tests were not performed. 

PMRA label search indicates 11 current Canadian labels. (22 August 2019). The product names include MilestoneRestoreClearview and Reclaim.

The National Library of Medicine HSDB Database (TOXNET) also has a page on Aminopyralid  'Occupational exposure to aminopyralid may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where aminopyralid is produced or used.'

I found very few scientific articles on google but this one was interesting:

Aminopyralid soil residues affect rotational vegetable crops in Florida 16 March 2011 (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/ps.2119 Spraying with aminopyralid of the bahiagrass used in rotation caused severe damage to following crops.

Clopyralid is apparently not registered in Canada at this time.


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also see wildlife/ amphibians and insects, reproductive health

Tyrone Hayes official site. Tyrone Hayes (University of California- Berkeley) has been hammered by Syngenta after he found that the herbicide had drastic effect on feminizing frogs. 

Tyrone has done many presentations on his research on atrazine. The latest is: Endocrine disruption, environmental justice, and the ivory tower | Tyrone Hayes | TEDxBerkeley (March 8, 2018)

Tyrone also gave many talks at Beyond Pesticides conferences such as 14 Keynote: Tyrone Hayes, PhD: Protecting Life, From Frogs to the Human Family (March 2018)

also see Reproductive Health

page updated 6 August 2019

Atrazine Found to Harm Marsupial Health    (Beyond Pesticides, August 12, 2020) 'The herbicide atrazine can interfere with the health and reproduction of marsupials (including kangaroos and opossums) kangaroo, Virginia opossum, according to research published in the journal Reproduction, Fertility, and Development.  Researchers found changes to the gene expression necessary for basic function of the testis, and a significant reduction in phallus length. “These results demonstrate that atrazine exposure during gestation and lactation can significantly affect the development of male young by affecting virilization,” the authors write.' The doses  were slightly higher than real world models,   'Worse yet, EPA is set to reregister atrazine for another 15 years of hazardous use.'    SNAP Comment: There are still 12 atrazine registered products in Canada as of 6 September 2020.While there are no opossums in Saskatchewan,there are some in other parts of Canada.

Toxic Herbicide Atrazine Causes Wasp Gut Microbiome to Develop Pesticide Resistance Across Generations  (Beyond Pesticides, February 11, 2020)   This study not only represents one of the first evolutionary studies on symbiont-mediated pesticide resistance, it also provides fodder for future research regarding the implications of exposure to xenobiotics (i.e., chemical substances like toxic pesticides foreign to an organism or ecosystem) for other gut bacteria hosts – such as honey bees and humans. Early generations of wasps in the study received a field-realistic dose of atrazine (300 ppb) or a subtoxic dose (30 ppb); exposed individuals showed a gut flora composition significantly different from the control group. The shift in microbiome composition persists across subsequent generations.   After the 8th generation of sublethal dosing, there was a significant increase in tolerance to atrazine. LC50 increased in later generations of the atrazine-exposed population, indicating pesticide resistance. The paper reads, “Our study is one of the few cases to experimentally evolve cooperation between a host animal and rare members of the microbiome to derive new fitness traits within the population.”   Even when wasps are switched to an atrazine-free diet for six generations, the bacterial composition was similar to that of the exposed parents. Overall, researchers observed an increase in microbiota diversity and bacterial load.'


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also see Industry Shenanigans and Legislation/RegulatoryHealth/Nervous System Effects, children

Chlorpyrifos (PAN fact sheet)  very good. no date of publication but references up to 2017.

Major Manufacturer of Chlorpyrifos Drops Out of Market, But EPA Continues to Allow Use   (Beyond Pesticides, February 12, 2020) 'Corteva, a company spun-off from DowDupont, will stop producing chlorpyrifos by the end of this year as a result of declining sales. Despite the move being in the interest of public health, the company is earning little praise from health advocates for what amounts to simply a shrewd financial decision.  At odds is the difference between halting production of chlorpyrifos and cancelling its EPA registration. While Corteva has the ability to voluntarily stop producing its own product, EPA registration permits other generic manufacturers to continue to producing the product. And, over the years, there would be nothing to stop Corteva from reintroducing “new” chlorpyrifos products back onto the market. '    The removal of Corteva (DowDupont) from the chlorpyrifos marketplace is indicative of a pattern within the current administration that puts profit at all cost above the health of the American people, and American children in particular, according to advocates. Decisions regarding public health should not be determined by the dictates of the marketplace, but by the sound science in states like NY, CA, and HI, the EU and other countries are following for the benefit of their residents.

Brain Function Damage from Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides, including Chlorpyrifos, Documented with Imaging  (Beyond Pesticides, August 30, 2019)  'The subject adolescents — estimated to have relatively high levels of prenatal exposure to organophosphates — showed aberrant brain activity in executive function, attention, social cognition, and language comprehension, compared to their peers.'   'Associate adjunct professor of epidemiology at UC Berkeley and lead author of the new study, Sharon Sagiv, PhD, said, “These results are compelling, because they support what we have seen with our neuropsychological testing, which is that organophosphates impact the brain.”'

European Regulators Issue Warning on Danger of Chlorpyrifos Prior to Release of Full Review   (Beyond Pesticides, August 22, 2019) 'In early August, experts from European Union (EU) member states and staff members of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) announced their conclusion that chlorpyrifos fails to meet criteria for renewed approval for use, potentially moving the EU a step closer to an outright ban.'  'The EU and EFSA experts included in their findings:

  1. a genotoxic potential for chlorpyrifos cannot be ruled out
  2. chlorpyrifos meets the criteria for classification as toxic for reproduction (REPRO 1B, H360D, “May damage the unborn child”), as set out in EU regulation (EC) No 1272/2008)   SNAP Comment: There are still 28 chlorpyrifos products registered in Canada as of 22 August 2019.

Evaluation Used to Support Registration of Neurotoxic Chlorpyrifos Found To Be Fundamentally Flawed (Beyond Pesticides, November 20, 2018)  Scientific conclusions used to support the registration of the insecticide chlorpyrifos were flawed and omitted key health impacts, according to a fresh analysis of the original data by a team of independent scientists from northern Europe and the U.S. This re-review not only casts further doubt on the safety of the neurotoxic chlorpyrifos, it highlights a major flaw within federal pesticide regulation that allows pesticide producers to submit their own safety evaluations to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency without public oversight. “One conclusion we draw is that there is a risk that the results of industry-funded toxicity tests are not reported correctly,” says co-author Axel Mie, PhD. “This makes it difficult for the authorities to evaluate the pesticides in a safe and valid way... While these studies are generally considered ‘confidential business information’ and not available to the public, using Swedish freedom of information laws, researchers were able to obtain two key studies relating to the developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos

Brain and Behavioral Effects of Early Exposures to Neurotoxicants  (University of California Television (UCTV), Aug 11, 2015)  There is also a significant link to meaningful tremors and learning deficits. This presentation addresses the impact of prenatal exposure to a common neurotoxicant on brain structure and neuropsychological function in an inner-city cohort of minority children. The toxic chemical, an organophosphate insecticide (chlorpyrifos), has been banned for indoor residential use in the U.S. since 2001, but continues to have widespread application for agricultural purposes. Possible moncholinergic mechanisms involve disruption of neural cell development and neurotransmitter systems, including the formation and activity of synapses in different brain regions. This presentation examines the evidence for long-term effects of prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure on neuropsychological profiles and brain morphology as measured by MRI. Series: "MIND Institute Lecture Series on Neurodevelopmental Disorders" Health and Medicine Professional Medical Education Show ID: 29838

California to List Chlorpyrifos as a Toxic Air Contaminant (Beyond Pesticides, August 8, 2018) "based on evidence of its neurological effects and exposure risks of concern...According to the assessment, “chlorpyrifos meets the criteria of TAC designation based on either the developmental neurotoxicity endpoint or the AChE inhibition endpoint, even without the additional 10x uncertainty factor necessary to account for the fact that the developmental neurotoxicity effects occur at a lower level than AChE inhibition.” As defined in California, a TAC is “an air pollutant which may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious illness, or which may pose a present or potential hazard to human health.”"

Poison Fruit    Dow Chemical Wants Farmers to Keep Using a Pesticide Linked to Autism and ADHD (The Intercept, 14 January 2017) A fascinating article reviewing the history of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos regulation in the United States. Reviews the research directly linking it to autism and several other disorders, the need for suing the US EPA to get action and Dow's constant efforts to keep chlorpyrifos on the market including bad studies, threats to sue the EPA, and success in changing the law. Long and lots of links." While the US nationwide autism rate is now one in 68, for women who lived near fields where chlorpyrifos was sprayed during their second trimester, the chance of having a child with autism was closer to one in 21." Effects on children's brains occur at levels 20 times below the EPA’s safety level. In spite of the evidence linking autism to environmental causes, the National Institute of Health (NIH) is only funding studies on environmental causes at 1/20th of the genetic ones. Dow's latest efforts: "Instead, the chemical industry has renewed its efforts to derail the proposed regulation. On November 29, (2016)  CropLife America launched a Hail Mary effort to stop the ban. The business group petitioned the head of the office of pesticide programs to “cease regulatory decision making” on chlorpyrifos until it has developed standards “for acceptance of epidemiologic studies in human health risk assessment,”" a process that could easily take several years.". However, there are still several potential ways it (Dow) could circumvent the regulation without technically defying the law.

SNAP comment: Here we have it from the mouth of industry: there is currently no process “for acceptance of epidemiologic studies in human health risk assessment.That is why it is so easy for regulatory agencies to ignore or set aside epidemiological studies in their pesticide re-evaluations, especially when the committees consist of several 'regulatory' scientists or others deriving their income from the pesticide industry. I don' t believe there is much of a mechanism or standard for regulatory agencies to evaluate anything but the studies mandated for registration. As of 16 January 2017, there are still 29 chlorpyrifos products registered for use in Canada.


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also see bee die-offpesticide drift and Legal/Litigation 

As of 12 February 2020, there are 104 dicamba pesticide products registered in Canada: 16 domestic products for use on lawns (e.g. KIllex, Weedex) usually mixed in with 2,4-D and mecoprop, 59 commercial products (including lawn care and agricultural products), 21 manufacturing concentrates and 8 technical actives. Searching for both dicamba and glyphosate at the same time, it does not appear that any products are registered. Searching for  XtendiMax reveals 1 registered product by  Monsanto Canada in 2015.   XtendiMax  is supposed to contain a less volatile form of dicamba. Therefore, most of  the Canadian registered products likely contain the more volatile form, even when used in agriculture. I suspect they would cause similar amount of damage if their use was as widespread and if Canadians went to court as much as Americans. According to Farmtario 'Dicamba takes legal hit in U.S.' (June 4, 2020)," Most use of dicamba-tolerant crops in Canada has been pre-plant, although there have been some dicamba drift cases here, especially in vegetable crops." 

Court Victory on Three Dicamba Weed Killers Underscores the Need to Reform Pesticide Law  (Beyond Pesticides, June 17, 2020) The June 3 decision in a high-profile “dicamba case” — against the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and for the plaintiffs, a coalition of conservation groups — was huge news in environmental advocacy, agriculture, and agrochemical circles. The federal Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals vacated EPA’s 2018 conditional registration of three dicamba weed killer products for use on an estimated 60 million acres of DT (dicamba-tolerant through genetic modification/engineering) soybeans and cotton. There is, however, a related issue that accompanies this and many other pesticide cases. When EPA decides to cancel or otherwise proscribe use of a pesticide (usually as a result of its demonstrated toxicity and/or damage during litigation), the agency will often allow pesticide manufacturers to continue to sell off “existing stocks” of a pesticide, or growers and applicators to continue to use whatever stock they have or can procure.'    SNAP Comment: The article also discusses other tacticsusedby the EPA  to deal with cancellation of pesticide uses while treading lightly on industry interests. The PMRA does the same in Canada. 

U.S. court blocks sales of Bayer weed killer (Reuters, 3 June, 2020)   SNAP Comment: I don't know what it means for this year's crops and gardens. When would the registration be cancelled? It ruled to ban sales, not use, likely because that is what the EPA is legally responsible for enforcing, like the PMRA. I suspect that the sales of dicamba-resistant seeds and dicamba products has already taken place this year. I do not believe this product is registered in Canada.     'Environmental groups have sought cancellation of the EPA’s approval of Monsanto’s dicamba-based XtendiMax herbicide, arguing it harms nearby plants and wildlife.  The court agreed, and its ruling also blocks sales of dicamba-based herbicides like BASF’s Engenia and Corteva Agriscience’s FeXapan.  A three-judge panel ruled the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) substantially understated the risks related to the use of dicamba, a chemical found in herbicides sold by Bayer and rivals that are sprayed on genetically engineered soybeans and cotton.'

Study Finds an Association between Dicamba Use and Increased Risk of Developing Various Cancers   (Beyond Pesticides, May 21, 2020) 'Use of the herbicide dicamba increases humans’ risk of various acute and chronic cancers, according to research published in the International Journal of Epidemiology by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Over half (52.9%) of all pesticide applicators in the study use dicamba. Participants reporting dicamba use are at elevated risk of developing liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia at the highest exposure level. Additionally, dicamba exposure risks are associated with liver cancer and acute myeloid leukemia linger, as much as 20-years after chemical exposure.   Commercial dicamba use is widespread throughout the U.S., with research findings linking the chemical to neurotoxicity, kidney/liver damage, sensitization/irritation, birth/developmental defects, reproductive damage, and respiratory illnesses. The AHS analysis also associates dicamba use with colon and lung cancer. In addition to human health effects, studies find that dicamba adversely impacts ecological health, causing harm to birds; insects; fish; aquatic organisms; non-target plants; and pollinators, like beetles. Not only do laboratory studies indicate that dicamba alters animal liver function to promote tumor growth and cancer, but they also find that it induces oxidative stress and DNA mutations—all of which are conduits acknowledged to cause cancer. Lastly, extensive dicamba use can induce antibiotic resistance in human pathogens like Escherichia coli and Salmonella eterica. Despite dicamba’s various adverse health associations, it remains available for commercial use in agricultural and non-agricultural settings alike.

“Hey Farmer Farmer, Put Away that” Dicamba Weed Killer   (Beyond Pesticides, February 14, 2020) US story. 'The weed killer dicamba has been blamed for killing or damaging millions of acres of non–genetically modified crops and other plants that have no protection against the compound.  This article 'round(s) up the plethora of recent news on dicamba': regulations, complaints, law suits, history, health effects.'   'Originally developed in the 1950s, dicamba is a benzoic acid herbicide that, when absorbed by plant tissue, ultimately causes the plant to outgrow its nutrient supply and die. Plants poisoned by dicamba typically exhibit curled, cup-shaped leaves, and often, stunted growth. Dicamba’s health effects on animal organisms can manifest as developmental, reproductive, neurological, hepatic, or renal harms. It also is a particular threat to birds, insects, fish, and aquatic organisms, as well as to non-target plants.'    'Dr. Ford Baldwin (a herbicide damage expert) who has previously testified on behalf of Monsanto and BASF), testified that “air in parts of the Midwest and South has become so contaminated with the weed killer dicamba that it has caused widespread damage to soybeans and other crops... It didn’t just come from one field.’” This happens because everyone sprays around the same time, dicamba evaporates, and there is an inversion, keeping the chemical near the ground overnight.   State agencies and laboratories cannot cope with the mumber of complaints and “meanwhile, because they’re fully occupied with dicamba complaints, inspectors don’t have time for all their other work, such as routine inspections of pesticide use at schools, golf courses or businesses. (NPR)  'The volume of complaints and losses associated with dicamba use has not moved the current EPA to address the compound’s toxicity in any significant way... But the EPA actually extended its approval of dicamba just a year ago, before the 2019 growing season. The agency decided the problems could be addressed with a few new restrictions on how and where dicamba can be sprayed, along with more training for people who use it... Those changes did not fix the problem, Reed says. ‘As a matter of fact, the complaint numbers went up’ in Indiana and several other states.”   'The 'EPA made a low-key announcement on March 19 suggesting that it may change its handling of requests from states to exert stricter controls on use of pesticides than the federal agency sets out in its registration of the compounds — by disapproving them. This issue of preemption of localities’ desires to protect their populations and environment has become an increasingly dynamic frontier at the nexus of pesticide use, health, and environment.'    SNAP Comment: It seems like the US EPA is treating dicamba like a public relations problem rather than a chemical one. Dicamba is volatile, period. The new regulations in place for spraying have not changed the number of complaints. If anything they are going up. So, the EPA's answer is to make it impossible for states to set up more stringent regulations? Really? This alone indicates an out of touch regulatory system. How can one trust a regulatory system that attempts to suppress evidence rather than taking into consideration in regulation? Keep that in mind when industry uses registration of a particular pesticide to imply safety.

'Victory for Farmers' as Jury Awards Grower $265 Million in Damages From Drift of Monsanto's Dicamba  (by Andrea Germanos, staff writer, Common Dreams, 17 February 2020)   'The jury sided with Bader Farms on Friday and awarded them $15 million in damages, as St. Louis Public Radio reported:   Monsanto and BASF were found liable for negligent design of the products and negligent failure to warn regarding the products. The jury also found that the two companies created a joint venture to manufacture and sell dicamba-resistant seed and low-volatility herbicides, and that they conspired to create an "ecological disaster" to increase profits.  Pesticide Action Network welcomed the development as well.  "This verdict is just the tip of the iceberg — there is a long queue of farmers who have been impacted by dicamba drift and deserve their day in court," said Linda Wells, Pesticide Action Network organizing director. "The internal Monsanto (now Bayer) documents uncovered in this case show that the company released a highly destructive and intentionally untested product onto the market, and used its influence to cheat the regulatory system."   "While farmers who don't use the Xtend system are hit with crop damage and yield loss from dicamba drift, Bayer and BASF are reaping the financial gains of an increase in acreage planted to dicamba resistant soybeans, and an increase in use of dicamba formulations," Wells continued. "Bader Farms' victory in this case signals a turning tide, and opens opportunities for farmers to hold Bayer and BASF legally accountable for the dicamba drift. also see Bader Farms Wins $265 Million in Lawsuit Against Bayer’s Monsanto, BASF   (Beyond Pesticides, February 20, 2020)

Farmer Takes Bayer/Monsanto to Court for  the productscausing all Crop Damage Caused by the Herbicide Dicamba  (Beyond Pesticides, February 6, 2020)  'Mr. Bader says that not only did he lose over 30,000 trees, his remaining peaches are now smaller and his trees are less productive. According to Bader, the damage has cost him $20.9 million for which he seeks restitution. The case is claiming that Monsanto, now owned by Bayer, and German partner company BASF knew that the sale of their products would result in crop damage due to drift, but sold dicamba-resistant cotton and soybean seeds anyway. The companies deny the claims.   The damage occurring was part of the plan,” said plaintiff attorney Billy Randles in an opening statement. “The damage was an essential element of selling this product.” Randles said that Monsanto could not control the product in their own greenhouse pointed to internal company discussions where the defendants “so thoroughly anticipated the problem” that they came up with a term for those who were impacted: “driftees.”    Steve Smith, the director of agriculture at world’s largest canned tomato processor, Red Gold Inc., testified at the trial that Monsanto had many warnings regarding the risk dicamba posed to farmers. Mr. Smith was a member of an advisory council to Monsanto on dicamba. “We told them (Monsanto) over and over again it was not a good idea,” said Smith in an interview with Sierra, “They keep saying it’s a matter of educating the growers. But the problem is not education; the problem is chemistry.”'

Dicamba Herbicide Poses Greater Threat of Drift when Mixed with Glyphosate  (Beyond Pesticides, July 18, 2019) 'During a 60-hour window, scientists applied various GE dicamba products (Clarity and XtendiMax) over a range of temperatures and took air samples. As temperatures increased, so did the volatilization and drift of dicamba, even in formulations touted as “low volatility.”'  'Adding glyphosate to the mixture produced stark results, increasing concentrations of dicamba in the air up to nine times compared to dicamba alone... and research finds that even trace amounts of dicamba in the air, levels in the parts per million, can damage non-resistant crops.'   SNAP Comment: This research illustrates another failures of the US and Canadian regulatory system. This interaction was totally missed by only requiring testing these pesticides separately even though they are used in formulation.

Arkansas Tried to Restrict the Use of This Controversial Pesticide. Monsanto Fought Back and Won. Dicamba drift has damaged millions of dollars worth of crops, as well as wildflowers that honeybees rely on to produce honey. (LIZA GROSS, Mother Jones, MARCH 1, 2019)   'As reported last year by FERN and Reveal, dicamba has damaged millions of dollars worth of crops over the past two years, after the EPA dismissed scientists’ concerns and approved the weedkiller for new uses on soybean and cotton seeds that Monsanto engineered to tolerate it. It has also harmed trees, gardens, and the wildflowers bees need to thrive and produce honey. '

Beyond Damaging Crops, Dicamba is Dividing Communities (Civil Eats, BY VIRGINIA GEWIN, Nov 8 2018)  As the EPA extends use of the controversial herbicide for two more years, farmers continue to take sides, and the effects on rural America are snowballing.'As dicamba use increases, so does the likelihood of non-farmers reporting damage. The number of homeowners and individuals reporting damage to gardens, trees, shrubs, and lawns, definitely increased in 2018 compared to 2017, says Norsworthy. “As individuals become more educated about the symptoms, they are more likely to pick up the phone and report it,” he adds.'   SNAP Comment: Indeed. It is a concern that states are no longer reporting or even collecting incident occurrences. This does not serve the public, the farming community, and only increases the doubts cast on the regulatory environment.


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Widely Used Fungicide Found to Adversely Affect Enzyme Common to All Cells   (Beyond Pesticides, July 5, 2019) 'This is a story about a chemical pesticide, a fungicide, in wide use for which the mode of action, i.e., the ability to cause harm, has not been fully understood. It is not a story unique to this pesticide... The ability of the fungicide fludioxonil to act on a sugar-metabolizing enzyme common to all cells, and to produce the damaging compound methylglyoxal, may mean that the pesticide has more potential to harm non-fungal cells than previously thought.'   'Fludioxonil, a phenylpyrrole fungicide, which was developed to treat seeds during storage. However, it has come to be used commonly on grains, vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants during cultivation, and worse (more on this below), to treat produce after it has been harvested to extend “shelf life.” Though fludioxonil is effective in killing fungi, the mode, or mechanism, of action for this pesticide was previously not well understood. 'Dr. Brandhorst notes, “The take home lesson is that fludioxonil is multifactorial. It’s not compromising cells by one solitary mechanism. It has potential to damage cells in a variety of ways.”'

  • Fludioxonil persists in soil — near the surface for weeks, and for years if it ends up deeper in the soil, 
  • it is also a “super toxin” for earthworms.
  • The fungicide’s extensive post-harvest use on food crops is of particular concern because it eliminates break down mechanisms 
  • the waxy fungicide is not easily removed by rinsing.
  • Further, UV-vis treatment of produce (which is sometimes done to reduce pathogens on fresh fruits and vegetables) actually significantly increases the toxicity of fludioxonil.
  •  is an EPA Category I toxin — “highly toxic and severely irritating” — to aquatic plants, bacteria, insects, fish, and aquatic invertebrates
  • “there is also reason to believe that breakdown products of this pesticide may be 100 times more toxic than fludioxonil itself.”
  • Synergistic potential. 'A 2012 study by French researchers found that a mixture of fludioxonil and cyprodinil, another fungicide, yielded data suggesting cytotoxic (lethal to cells) and genotoxic (damaging to DNA)' 

Neither the US EPA or the PMRA comprehensively evaluates pesticides for synergistic effects. 'In 2016, the Center for Biological Diversity wrote an extensive report on this issue: Toxic Concoctions: How the EPA Ignores the Dangers of Pesticide Cocktails.' 

SNAP Comment: There are currently 39 fludioxonil products registered in Canada as of 20 July 2019. Several are in combination with other pesticides. In addition ot seed and potato seed treatment, some formulations are used on leafy vegetables like spinach, fruit and vine climbing crops and turf in golf courses. I did not do an exhaustive search of all labels. This looks like an emerging problem, perhaps the next glyphosate?


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Despite Safety Claims, Insecticide Flupyradifurone Is Bee-Toxic on Its Own and Worse in Combination  (Beyond Pesticides, April 17, 2019)   'It functions in the same way as a neonicotinoid, though it is in the butanolide family.' 'It also delves into the FPF’s synergistic effects with a commonly used fungicide propiconazole (PRO).'. Link to study in article..  SNAP Comment: As of 20 April 2019, this insecicide does not appear to be registered in Canada

'EPA Considers 300,000-Acre Expansion of Bee-Toxic Pesticide  (Beyond Pesticides, October 19, 2018) Pollinator advocates and the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) are imploring the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to deny Bayer CropScience’s application for use of “Sivanto,”a pesticide product with the active ingredient flupyradifurone, a chemical the company claims is safer for bees, but poses the same risks at the notorious bee-toxic neonicotinoid insecticides. If approved, Sivanto would be sprayed in tobacco-growing states along 300,000 acres in the southeast U.S., areas home to more than three dozen species protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)Bayer’s proposal for expanded uses comes after EPA’s own assessment indicated risks to endangered species, and despite the fact that the agency has not undergone an ESA mandated consultation with federal wildlife agencies. Flupyradifurone is a systemic insecticide like neonicotinoids, and is highly water soluble.

SNAP Comment: According to PANNA Pesticide Database, it is of 'unclassified' chemical class. Five flupyradifurone have first been registered in Canada since 25 November 2015. It is therefore a recent product, too 'young' to have been submitted to independent research but seemingly, company data indicates 'risks to endangered species.'  Here is what the Sivanto label says:

'Section 2: The Product
Sivanto Prime Insecticide is intended for the control of insect pests in a wide variety of
vegetable crops, fruit crops and field crops. Sivanto Prime Insecticide is a broadspectrum
insecticide that is acropetally systemic, moving from roots to the leaves in the
case of soil applications. Sivanto Prime Insecticide moves translaminarly through the
leaf tissue in the case of foliar applications, and can provide control of pests on the
underside of leaves. Sivanto Prime Insecticide is readily absorbed into leaf tissue and is
considered “rainfast” within 1 hour after spray dries. Sivanto Prime Insecticide can be
applied by air-blast, aerial and ground application equipment.'

Glyphosate (RoundUp)

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(more on RoundUp at SNAP risk assessment page , Childrenfood,  endocrine-disruption, eyeskidney , body burden liver diseaseHealth/respiratoryhealth/cancerdigestive tract, obesityreproductive healthnervous system effects/Parkinson's, Industry shenanigans, mammals, waterbee die-off, Exposure to Pesticides, Legal/Litigation, Legislation/Regulatory/ USA, gmo pagewater/algae blooms 

Glyphosate testing

Study Shows Organic Food Diet Reduces Residues of Glyphosate in Body   (Beyond Pesticides, August 13, 2020) 'Levels of the notorious herbicide compound glyphosate in the human body are reduced by 70% through a one-week switch to an organic diet.'

Glyphosate in Roundup Linked to Parkinson’s Disease (Beyond Pesticides, May 15, 2020) The ubiquity of glyphosate use in agriculture — which leaves residues of the toxic chemical in food — may mean that exposures to it represent a significant risk factor for the disease. Glyphosate is already implicated or proved in the development of numerous health anomalies, including cancer.  They found that exposures to glyphosate in adult mice intensified a type of neurotoxicity associated with PD. The abstract for the research paper, titled “Glyphosate exposure exacerbates the dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the mouse brain after repeated administration of MTPT,” is available online; once published, the paper will be available through Science Direct.   The researchers found that the exposures to glyphosate exacerbated the reduction of DAT (dopamine transporter) immunoreactivity in the striatum, and the reduction of TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) positive cells in the SNr after MPTP administration. Translation: the exposure to glyphosate appears both to worsen the ability of local neurons (in the SNr and striatum) to produce and transport dopamine effectively, and to intensify the neurotoxicity of other extrinsic chemicals (in this case, MPTP).

Glyphosate and Roundup proven to disrupt gut microbiome by inhibiting shikimate pathway (GM Watch, 11 December 2019) 'The study found certain adverse effects at all doses tested, disproving regulators' assumptions that these levels have no adverse effects.' SNAP Comment: Note the huge variation in study dosage, based on regulatory acceptable levels. Clearly, glyphosate and Roundup are not 'safe' at levels considered acceptable daily intake or 'no adverse effects'. Interesting that in most pesticide studies there are liver and/or kidney effects. After all, these organs are two of the main detoxification organs in the body. The issue with our 'dose makes the poison' based regulatory system is that we then divide the dose causing problems by 1000 or something then assume it's OK at that level. This is clearly 'baloney'. 'However, proof that glyphosate herbicides can inhibit the EPSPS enzyme and the shikimate pathway in gut bacteria has been lacking. But a new study has proven beyond doubt that this does indeed happen. The study in rats has found that Roundup herbicide and its active ingredient glyphosate cause a dramatic increase in the levels of two substances, shikimic acid and 3-dehydroshikimic acid, in the gut, which are a direct indication that the EPSPS enzyme of the shikimic acid pathway has been severely inhibited. In addition, the researchers found that both Roundup and glyphosate affected the microbiome at all dose levels tested, causing shifts in bacterial populations. For the study, female rats (12 per group) were fed a daily dose of either glyphosate or a Roundup formulation approved in Europe, called MON 52276Glyphosate and Roundup were administered via drinking water to give a glyphosate daily intake of 0.5 mg, 50 mg and 175 mg/kg body weight per day (mg/kg bw/day), which respectively represent the EU acceptable daily intake (ADI), the EU no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), and the US NOAEL.' 'The study also revealed that Roundup, and to a lesser extent glyphosate, damaged the liver and kidneys of the rats, even over the relatively short study period of 90 days' .with little reflected in the blood biochemistry. 'Histopathological (microscopic) examination of the liver showed that the two higher doses of Roundup caused a statistically significant and dose-dependent increase in lesions, fatty liver disease changes, and necrosis (death of tissue). In contrast, none of the control animals showed the same liver effects.'

Glyphosate decreases mycorrhizal colonization and affects plant-soil feedback (Marjo Helander et al, Science of The Total Environment,Volume 642, 15 November 2018, Pages 285-291)  Highlights

  • In northern ecosystems glyphosate residues are detected in crop plants the following growing season.
  •  Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization is decreased in glyphosate treated plants.
  • The magnitude of mycorrhizal reduction is dependent on tilling and soil history.

The Pesticide Generation   Children on the Front Line  (Webdoc.France24.com,original FRANCE 24 multimedia documentary has been translated from the original in French, 2019)  A court case against glyphosate and what is happening in France about banning glyphosate. "The medical community is unambiguous: Théo’s malformations are not genetic, but definitely linked to an external factor. “Right from birth, Théo’s doctors pointed a finger at pesticides,” says Sabine, who at the time didn’t make an immediate connection to the weed killer that she used at home to spray the horse paddock. “The wake-up call came later,” she remembers. In August 2008, to be precise. Just as she did every year at the same time, Sabine treated the area with Glyper, a herbicide containing glyphosate. “It suddenly hit me; I remembered what the surgeon had told me about pesticides.” Due to the teratogenic risks of glyphosate causing malformation of embryos and foetal abnormalities cited in scientific studies, doctors say the link to Théo’s birth defects is “highly likely”. “I was exposed to glyphosate at a crucial moment in my pregnancy – during the first four weeks,” she says. “I didn’t even know I was pregnant, so I didn’t take any particular precautions.'

New study finds glyphosate causes disease across several generations   (The Organic and non-GMO Report, May 2, 2019)    "But writing in the journal Scientific Reports, the researchers say they saw “dramatic increases” in several pathologies affecting the second and third generations. The second generation had “significant increases” in testis, ovary, and mammary gland diseases, as well as obesity. In third-generation males, the researchers saw a 30 percent increase in prostate disease—three times that of a control population. The third generation of females had a 40 percent increase in kidney disease, or four times that of the controls.  More than one-third of the second-generation mothers had unsuccessful pregnancies, with most of those affected dying. Two out of five males and females in the third generation were obese."

Health and Environmental Groups Call on EPA to Revoke Glyphosate’s Registration  (Beyond Pesticides, September 4, 2019) Sixteen organizations representing health, environmental, farmer, and farmworker communities joined together yesterday to call on EPA to remove glyphosate from the marketplace. The groups cite a combination of high-profile lawsuits, environmental impacts, increasing reports of weed resistance, and growing public concern over the health effects of glyphosate in their comments on EPA’s interim reregistration review decision for the chemical. The comments warn that EPA is at risk of damaging the public’s trust in the agency’s review process for toxic pesticides. The article also ' replies to EPA’s attacks against the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Unique Hair Testing Project Reveals High Levels of Glyphosate in Members of the Japanese Parliament (Sustainable Pulse, Aug 29 2019)   'The Detox Project’s Director, Henry Rowlands, stated Thursday; “This unique testing project was made possible by the development of new hair testing methods that have enabled our long-term exposure to pesticides to be identified for the first time. Urine and blood testing only give us a very short-term picture of exposure, whereas hair testing gives us the real and full picture of what we have been exposed to over the long-term and thus what we need to avoid.”'  'From the 28 hair samples taken 75% of them tested positive for long-term pesticide exposure, with a total of 14 pesticides being detected.'   'The pesticides detected included Cyprodinil, Fipronil Sulfone, Iprovalicarb, Metolachlor, Propiconazole, Pyraclostrobin, Spiroxamine, Tebuconazole, Tetramethrin, Transfluthrin, Trifloxystrobin, Glyphosate, AMPA, Glufosinate.' out of 60 tested for. 'Four of those pesticides were found in over 10% of the samplesTebuconazole ( a fungicide) – 10.7%, Transfluthrin (an insecticide) – 14.3 %, Glyphosate (a herbicide) – 32.1%, AMPA (the main metabolite of glyphosate) – 53.6%'   'The results for glyphosate and AMPA included regular levels of over 33 and 166 ppb respectively with the highest results of 791 ppb for glyphosate and 1205 ppb for AMPA.'  ''The Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries reported that 90% of U.S. wheat imports and an even higher % of Canadian wheat imports contain glyphosate residues, mainly due to the practice of pre-harvest spraying'

Glyphosate: Destructor of Human Health and Biodiversity   Another Silent Killer (Compiled by Rosemary Mason MB ChB FRCA with information from a global network of independent scientists, toxicologists, beekeepers, environmentalists, Governments, Industry and Regulators)   Article received by Tony Mitra from Dr. Rosemary Mason of UK. He says: "The article is available on Academia.edu for free for members. I am not a member, but got a free copy from her. I decided to include this 53 page pdf document as a downloadable file for anyone interested on my site.

Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure during pregnancy and lactation malprograms the male reproductive morphofunction in F1 offspring   (Jakeline Liara Teleken et al, Published online by Cambridge University Press: 16 July 2019)   'data indicate that maternal exposure to glyphosate-ROUNDUP® during pregnancy and lactation may lead to decreased spermatogenesis and disruptions in hypothalamus–pituitary–testicular axis regulation in F1 offspring.' Link to scientific study abstract and references. 

Don Huber - Glyphosate - Dangers and Soil Remediation (Global Earth Repair conference, May 9, 2019)  Don Huber goes through all the dangers of this defoliant and toxin, why it is so deadly, and how to remove it from bodies and from soil Thank you for your work, Don!!   Over 1 hour video well worth watching. As usual, Huber presents  lots of studies in many fields. Widespread use and history of use, as well EPA 'acceptable levels' in foods being much higher than the levels observed to cause health issue in the lab and in real life. Interesting that when glyphosate replaces glycine in proteins, it causes proteins to fold wrong and adopt a shape characteristic of prion diseases like mad cow diseaseGlyphosate is antibiotic against the good bacteria but, unfortunately, the bad ones (Salamonella.E coli, Clostridium, etc) are resistant. Also presents studies indicating that supplementing bees in areas of severe bee hive loss with water containing minerals and some probiotics can reduce the hive loss from 40%/year to .05%. Part of the solution for livestock diseases is to buy clean feed and supplement minerals. Lots of data from many sources build the case against glyphosate.

Roundup’s Risks Could Go Well Beyond Cancer   Evidence of the cheap herbicide’s danger to biological functions and the environment continues to mount. Why are U.S. regulators not listening?  (By Mark Buchanan, Bloomberg Opinion, June 4, 2019)  'Both the EPA and the EFSA relied on information provided by researchers linked to the industry and considered studies provided by the industry that were not peer-reviewed or made public. The IARC relied solely on publicly available peer-reviewed research.'  ' In both the U.S. and Europe, the supposedly safe limits for human ingestion are based on long-outdated science. Research also points to serious adverse consequences for the environment, and there are indications glyphosate can cause disease in mammals even several generations removed from the initial exposure.'   SNAP comment: The article does not answer its question other than pointing out the narrow scope of studies which regulatory agencies evaluate. I can add the mandatory 'risk-benefit assessment' where use is considered a benefit and need and trumps any negative health and environmental effects. This, in my view, is 'long outdated science', as well as the belief that there is a 'safe' dose at which there is no effect, and the unscientific way this is calculated. 

Assessment of Glyphosate Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Pathologies and Sperm Epimutations: Generational Toxicology (Scientific Reports | (2019) 9:6372   scientific paper. 'Therefore, we propose glyphosate can induce the transgenerational inheritance of disease and germline (e.g. sperm) epimutations. Observations suggest the generational toxicology of glyphosate needs to be considered in the disease etiology of future generations.'

U.S. Health Agency Concurs with International Findings Linking Weed Killer Glyphosate to Cancer, while Inspector General Investigates Misconduct at EPA   (Beyond Pesticides, April 23, 2019)   'But despite the attempts of an apparently corrupt EPA official, earlier this month DHHS’ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) released its first draft on the Toxicological Profile for Glyphosate. Top-line findings appear consistent with conclusions made by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) on the carcinogenicity of glyphosate...However, the studies and references analyzed in the report indicate clearly there is strong link between glyphosate and cancer. Of particular note are the three meta-analyses of epidemiological studies reviewed by ATSDR: Schinasi and Leon (2014), Chang and Delzell (2016), and the IARC monograph, which all found “positive associations” between glyphosate exposure and cancer. The Chang and Delzell (2016) study, funded in part by Monsanto itself, downplays in its abstract conclusions that in fact line up closely to the other meta-studies.'

Another Study Links Glyphosate to Cancer  also a link to study. (Beyond Pesticides, March 26, 2019) 'In a study investigating the carcinogenic effects of pesticide exposure by analyzing data on 316,270 farmers and farmworkers in the U.S., Norway, and France, researchers have identified elevated risk for non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and some subtypes, linking glyphosate and large B-cell lymphoma. Other pesticides linked to the disease include the pyrethroid deltamethrin and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma; and terbufos and NHL overall.'  'For this research, chemical groups and active ingredients were selected based on common use in at least two of the three countries. In addition, researchers gave priority to chemical groups and active ingredients for which some associative evidence with lympho-hematological malignancies has already been established, and to active ingredients not previously investigated in epidemiological studies. Glyphosate and dicamba were included in the study, as well as these categorical compounds: four insecticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, and pyrethroids); seven herbicides (phenyl ureas, chloroacetanilides, dinitroanilines, phenoxys, thiocarbamates, triazines, and triazinones); two fungicides (dithiocarbamates and phthalimides); and arsenical compounds.

European Court of Justice Orders EU Regulators to Publicly Release Secret Industry Glyphosate Studies (Organic Consumer Association, March 7, 2019)   'The General Court concludes that the requested studies must be regarded as constituting information which ‘relates to emissions into the environment’ and that an overriding public interest in disclosing the studies is deemed to exist. EFSA could not therefore refuse to disclose them on the ground that that would have an adverse effect on the protection of the commercial interests of the owners of the requested studies.'   Original document at:

EFSA’s decisions refusing access to the toxicity and carcinogenicity studies on the active substance glyphosate are annulled

General Court of the European Union
Luxembourg, 7 March 2019
Judgment in Cases T-716/14
Anthony C. Tweedale v European Food Safety Agency
(EFSA) and T-329/17 Hautala and Others v EFSA

A Pesticide Distributor, an Insurance Company, a Major City, and a Scientific Study Nix Glyphosate (Roundup)  (Beyond Pesticides, March 15, 2019) . 'First up: Harrell’s is a company that sells chemical pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, and “adjuvants and colorants,” among other products, primarily to golf courses, and to the horticulture-nursery, turf, and landscape sectors. The company announced on March 11 that it stopped selling products containing glyphosate as of March 1, 2019 because neither its current insurance company nor others the company consulted would underwrite coverage for the company for any glyphosate-related claims.'  SNAP Comment: Perhaps the Canadian insurance industry should get on that too.... seems like what a government refuses to do (ban a problematic product) can be achieved by the insurance industry without any backlash.

Study Confirms Findings on Carcinogenic Glyphosate, Suggests “Compelling Link”  (Beyond Pesticides, February 28, 2019)  Statistical analysis revealed there to be a 41% increased risk of NHL resulting from high exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides. To compare and add weight to their results, researchers also conducted a second statistical analysis using older (2005) AHS data, which surprisingly revealed a higher, 45% risk.

The herbicide glyphosate persists in wild, edible plants: B.C. study (RANDY SHORE, Vancouver Sun, February 20, 2019)  'Wood found unexpected levels of glyphosate in new shoots and berries of plants that survived an aerial herbicide application made one year earlier... The 10 species tested were selected for their importance as traditional-use plants, because some First Nations had expressed concerns about the long-term effects of glyphosate on wild plants, said Wood...Glyphosate is typically broken down in soil by microorganisms over a period of months, but how long it persists in living plant tissues is unknown, she said.'

Exposure to Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis and Supporting Evidence (Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, Available online 10 February 2019)   'Overall, in accordance with evidence from experimental animal and mechanistic studies, our current meta-analysis of human epidemiological studies suggests a compelling link between exposures to GBHs and increased risk for NHL.'

Glyphosate is Genotoxic to Human White Blood Cells at Low Concentrations  (By Henry Rowlands, GMO Evidence, October 24th, 2018)  link to full paper.  'Human lymphocytes were exposed to five glyphosate concentrations: 0.500, 0.100, 0.050, 0.025, and 0.0125 μg/mL, where 0.500 μg/mL represents the established acceptable daily intake value, and the other concentrations were tested in order to establish the genotoxicity threshold for this compound. We observed that chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronuclei (MNi) frequencies significantly increased at all tested concentrations, with exception of 0.0125 μg/mL.'

Glyphosate perturbs the gut microbiota of honey bees  (Erick V. S. Motta, Kasie Raymann, and Nancy A. Moran, PNAS October 9, 2018 115 (41) 10305-10310) complete sccientific paper. 'The honey bee gut microbiota is dominated by eight bacterial species that promote weight gain and reduce pathogen susceptibility. The gene encoding EPSPS is present in almost all sequenced genomes of bee gut bacteria, indicating that they are potentially susceptible to glyphosateWe demonstrated that the relative and absolute abundances of dominant gut microbiota species are decreased in bees exposed to glyphosate at concentrations documented in the environment.

“Safe Levels” Of Exposure Don’t Exist When It Comes To Monsanto’s Glyphosate Poison (The Ring of Fire, Dec 16, 2018)  Interesting and accurate video on the state of research on glyphosate. 'The main ingredient in Monsanto’s Roundup, glyphosate, is not safe, even at levels that the EPA is telling us is safe. Mike Papanotnio and Farron cousins discuss'. SNAP comment: Technically, neither the EPA or the PMRA can say a pesticide is 'safe" because all registered products are designed to kill. What they determine through LD50 (the dose that kills 1/2 fo the animals) put through some equations, is an acceptable dose i.e.a dose at which they don't think negative health effects will occur. Another issue with re-evaluation of pesticide is the people chosen to sit on the re-evaluation committees, many of whom have a long history of contracting with pesticide companies to do 'regulatory science'. The case of 2,4-D re-evaluation for home use in Canada (2005) illustrates that. The committee was formed of 2 industry-related 'experts', 1 PMRA official and 2 epidemiologsts. Studies of cancer in dogs were eliminated, and the cancer ones minimized so it remained on the Canadian market. The pesticide industry previously unsuccessfully tried to re-write the book on epidemiology so the burden of proof would be so high that all studies would be negative. Regulatory pesticide testing was designed decades ago and has not kept up with the science of low dose and endocrine effects so is totally meaningless in that regards.

Glyphosate Monograph (PAN, 2016) seems like the most up to date compendium of information.

Brazil: Glyphosate found in over 80% of breast milk samples  (GM Watch, 11 August 2018)  'Surprisingly, the same contamination level was detected in the municipality of Oeiras, roughly 750 kilometers from the Urucui, where agricultural activity is the least in the state. also filed at pesticides and food 

Glyphosate study shows adverse health effects at "safe" dose  (GM Watch, 16 May 2018) 'The study was focused on the newborn, infancy and adolescence phases of life. The results reveal that glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) was able to alter certain important biological parameters, mainly relating to sexual development, genotoxicity, and the intestinal microbiome....The effects occurred at a dose deemed safe by regulators to ingest on a daily basis over a long-term period. In human-equivalent terms the dosing period corresponded to the period from the embryo stage to 18 years of age.' The levels measured in urine suggest 'a bioaccumulation effect of glyphosate that was proportional to the length of treatment.'  also filed under microbiota changes 

New study links common herbicides and antibiotic resistance  (University of Canterbury,October 12, 2018)    'A new study finds that bacteria develop antibiotic resistance up to 100,000 times faster when exposed to the world's most widely used herbicides, Roundup (glyphosate) and Kamba (dicamba) and antibiotics compared to without the herbicide.'   Also filed under  drug interactions

Common Weed Killer Linked to Bee Deaths  (University of Texas news, Sept. 24, 2018)  "The researchers exposed honey bees to glyphosate at levels known to occur in crop fields, yards and roadsides. The researchers painted the bees’ backs with colored dots so they could be tracked and later recaptured. Three days later, they observed that the herbicide significantly reduced healthy gut microbiota. Of eight dominant species of healthy bacteria in the exposed bees, four were found to be less abundant. The hardest hit bacterial species, Snodgrassella alvi, is a critical microbe that helps bees process food and defend against pathogens...The bees with impaired gut microbiomes also were far more likely to die when later exposed to an opportunistic pathogen, Serratia marcescens, compared with bees with healthy guts. Serratia is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that infects bees around the world."  Also see  Study: Roundup Weed Killer Could Be Linked To Widespread Bee Deaths  (Vanessa Romo, NPR, September 25, 2018) 

Dramatic postmortem evidence of glyphosate-linked damage to animal organs (Renewable Farming LCC WakeUP)  Sept. 17, 2017 -- We encourage you to study the web posting by Dr. Dupmeier at this link. It takes you to his "DOCTORTED" website. This practicing veterinariam's report was posted July 17, 2017 and soon "went viral." His video presentation is called Without Prejudice - Glyphosate, in which he presents evidence of health damage to amimals by glyphosate and how changing feed and adding molasses can correct problems. Researcher Judy Carman is the principal author of the scientific report, which reveals essentially the same GMO/glyphosate consequences seen by Dr. Dupmeier. This article links to Dr. Carman's site, which contains that entire study plus more.

Glyphosate-based Herbicide Impairs Female Fertility - new study (GM Watch 24 July 2018.)  What the 3 month studies mandated by regulatory agencies cannot show:  The dosages were selected based of the reference dose (dose supposed to be safe over a lifetime) and the higher dose was 1/5th of the "industry-declared no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)". 'However, although all glyphosate herbicide-exposed first generation female rats became pregnant, they had a lower number of implantation sites of fertilized eggs, compared with controlsThe second generation offspring from both glyphosate herbicide-exposed groups showed delayed growth, evidenced by lower foetal weight and length, and a higher incidence of abnormally small foetuses...Also, to the authors' surprise, malformations (conjoined foetuses and abnormally developed limbs) were detected in the second generation of offspring from the higher dose of glyphosate herbicide group...The findings of malformations reflect epidemiological findings that people living in an Argentine town in the heart of the GM soy and maize growing area, where glyphosate-based herbicides are sprayed in large amounts, suffer birth defects at twice the national average average rate.' Link to original study and others.  

Press Release: New Study: Glyphosate persists! And European top soils are contaminated with it. (PAN Europe, October 13, 2017)  "45% of Europe’s top soil contains glyphosate residues, demonstrating the over-reliance of the EU agricultural model on this harmful herbicide chemical. In contrast to what its manufactures2 purport, glyphosate persists in soils affecting not only soil fertility and crop quality, but also human and environmental health."   "The concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA found in the study have been shown to be toxic to soil organisms such as earthworms3, beneficial bacteria4 and fungi5 , as glyphosate weakens down plants’ natural defences making them susceptible to pathogens6." 

Glyphosate on feed affects livestock: vet (Western Producer, 19 October 2017)  A veterinarian in Shaunavon, Sask., believes feed with glyphosate residue adversely affects cattle health. Dr. Ted Dupmeier, who operates his own practice at Shaunavon, told about 50 people at a recent event he called an awareness seminar that he began investigating after being unable to diagnose problems in a dairy herd in which cows were inexplicably dying. He said after removing feed that had been sprayed with glyphosate the problems were resolved. SNAP Comment: Positive that this story was actually worth an article in the Western Producer. This "anecdote" supports the facts presented in the video Poisoned Fields - Glyphosate, the underrated risk? (HD 1080p)  (Jan 25, 2016)

Poisoned Fields - Glyphosate, the underrated risk? (HD 1080p)  (Jan 25, 2016)  Glyphosate is the world’s most widely used weed killer. Some claim it is completely harmless, others say it is a serious health hazard for man and animals. A topical investigation into a controversial substance.

Sustained Glyphosate Use Reveals Risks to Soil and Environmental Health  (Beyond Pesticides, July 21, 2017)   Researchers have found that, after years of consistent application to agricultural crops, the chemical accumulates and persists in area soil, particularly at the root zone and in the top few millimeters. In part, the accumulation is due to the fact that only 5% of any applied dose tends to reach the weed it is intended to kill, while the rest lands on the soil. In addition, the chemical is likely released in soil from the roots of plants that have absorbed the compound, as well as from decomposing plants that have been exposed to it. This finding of persistence belies the common assumption that the chemical rapidly degrades in soil.

Agricultural Uses of Antibiotics Escalate Bacterial Resistance. Organic Leads in Prohibiting Antibiotic Use. (Pesticides and You, winter 2016-17)    Presents information on antibiotic use in animal and fish production as well as in agriculture for the control of bligh and other bacterial crop diseases. Discusses residued in food and water. The use of glyphosate, a registered antibiotic, in crop production dwarfs knows uses of all other antibiotics by at least 3 times. Gives some of the organic alternatives. Unfortunately only US data with few international for contaminated fish. 

Continued Use of Glyphosate Herbicide in EU Called into Question by Renowned Toxicologist  (Beyond Pesticides, June 5, 2017)  Dr. Portier asks that the evaluations by EFSA and EChA be “repeated for all toxicological endpoints and the data underlying these evaluations be publicly released.” Based on these failures in data analysis, the final assessments conducted by the EU agencies are insufficient to allow for glyphosate’s license extension, he said...In 2015, Dr. Portier presented at a scientific briefing in London and stated, “Glyphosate is definitely genotoxic. There is no doubt in my mind.” Genotoxicity is the ability of a chemical agent to damage the genetic information within a cell, causing mutations that may lead to cancer. According to Dr. Portier’s presentation, there is strong evidence that glyphosate and its formulated products are genotoxic and an oxidative stressor. Several links.

Monsanto Sued for Misleading Labeling of Popular Herbicide Roundup  (Beyond Pesticides, April 10, 2017) Two nonprofit organizations on Friday filed a lawsuit against Monsanto for misleading the public by labeling its popular weedkiller Roundup as “targeting an enzyme found in plants but not in people or pets.” This lawsuit charges that this statement is false, deceptive, and misleading, because the enzyme targeted by glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup, is, in fact, found in people and pets.

Nearly a third of food samples in CFIA testing contain glyphosate residues (CBC News. Apr 13, 2017) The Canadian Food Inspection Agency's report on testing of glyphosate is titled "Safeguarding with Science: Glyphosate Testing in 2015-2016, and was published on its website this week. more under food 

Why Is Glyphosate Sprayed on Crops Right Before Harvest? (EcoWatch, 5 March 2016) ...The pre-harvest use of glyphosate allows farmers to harvest crops as much as two weeks earlier than they normally would, an advantage in northern, colder regions...The practice spread to wheat-growing areas of North America such as the upper Midwestern U.S. and Canadian provinces such as Saskatchewan and Manitoba...“It does help hasten dry down and controls grain weeds and other material that slows down the threshing practice," Ransom said. “It has an important role in areas where it's wet." SNAP Comment: This article calls the use of glyphosate prior to harvest dessicationIn Canada, glyphosate is not registered for dessication (or as a dessicant), but for "pre-harvest spraying", which amounts to the same thing without saying the word...For instance the Vantage label indicates to apply at "30% or less grain moisture content. This stage typically occurs 7 to 14 days before harvest." "For control of quackgrass, Canada thistle, common milkweed, toadflax and dandelion; and season-long control of perennial sow thistle, Vantage can be applied prior to harvest of wheat, barley (including malting barley), oats, canola (rapeseed), flax (including low linolenic acid varieties), lentils, peas, dry beans, soybeans and forages. DO NOT apply to crops if grown for seed production." 

Roundup Proven to Cause Liver Disease - Recall Must be Enacted  (Moms Across America, Zen Honeycutt,  January 09, 2017)   January 9, 2016 a new study reveals that the weedkiller Roundup causes liver disease in rats after being exposed to doses lower than allowed by the EPA to be present on American food and feed crops. The story was published by Claire Robinson of GMWatch. According to the Liver Foundationat least 30 million people—or one in 10 Americans—now have some form of liver diseasestudyRoundup causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease at very low doses. also filed under health/liver disease

Monsanto Supporters Admit Massive Fail over Glyphosate Report Criticism (Sustainable Pulse, Nov 28 2016)  Read ful article for links and details. Fail #1: Criticism of testing methodsFolta was forced to withdraw his criticism, which he had already fed to a selection of journalists across the U.S. Fail #2: Misinformation regarding the safety of low levels of glyphosate. Modern independent science has discovered that many toxic chemicals have as much or more of an influence on our health at low doses– these chemicals are known as hormone hackers (endocrine disruptors). Glyphosate is likely to be one of these. Fail #3: Peer Review needed for food testing results? Dr. Folta and colleagues have now taken to stating that they cannot trust the results because they are not peer-reviewed, even though they are all clearly aware of the difference between University studies and commercial laboratory reports.This is a ridiculous line of attack as millions of food samples in the U.S. are tested and reported by FDA-registered laboratories, such as Anresco Laboratories, every single year with no peer-review. SNAP Comments: We may think they have failed but, as long as there are no obligatory endocrine effects for pesticide registration and people believe their BS, they are winning...

EPA Postpones Glyphosate Cancer Review Meeting after Letter from CropLife America (Beyond Pesticides, October 21, 2016)  Last week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) postponed a long-planned Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) on the carcinogenicity of the widely used herbicide glyphosate due to “recent changes in the availability of experts for the peer review panel.”  However, as veteran journalist, formerly with Reuters, Carey Gillam reports in the Huffington Post, the move was likely the result of a letter industry front group CropLife America sent to EPA just days before the postponement, challenging the bias of certain experts on the panel. Croplife America is a national trade association that represents manufacturers, formulators, and distributors of pesticides, and has a vested interest in tamping down consumer concerns over glyphosate’s carcinogenicity. SNAP comments: We should all be complaining about the perennial use of industry-sponsored experts on panels. CropLife, both in Canada and the US, acts like if their studies, mosty unpublished, are the only objective one,s while evidence has shown over and over again the industry-bias of industry-sponsored studies. 

Glyphosate: New monograph published  (GM watch,11 October 2016) 'PAN International says, "Adverse human impacts detailed in the review include acute poisoning, kidney and liver damage, imbalances in the intestinal microbiome and intestinal functioning, cancer, genotoxicity, endocrine disruption, reproductive and development reduction, neurological damage and immune system dysfunction.”' 'Glyphosate is sprayed on over 80% of GM crops and is used to “desiccate” other crops to make them easier to harvest.'The new review can be accessed here: http://pan-international.org/wp-content/uploads/Glyphosate-monograph.pdf

Glyphosate fact sheet (PAN UK, 1996 therefore not up to date)

Grain Millers Inc. firm on glyphosate-treated oats ban (Western Producer, Jan. 29th, 2016) Tyson said use of glyphosate as a pre-harvest management product disrupts the natural maturation process and negatively affects starch development, resulting in lower quality flakes and flour.NOTE: There we go! Another reason to NOT use gyphosate!

Glyphosate in Childhood Vaccines (Moms Across America, Sep 6, 2016)  DTap Adacel (Sanofi Pasteur) vaccine had 0.123 ppb, Influenza Fluvirin (Novaris)  0.331 ppb and HepB Energix-B (Glaxo Smith Kline) 0.325 and Pneumonoccal Vax Polyvalent Pneumovax 23, (Merck) had 0.107 ppb of glyphosate.The MMR II (Merck) vaccine, which CDC whistle blower Dr.William Thomas has linked to autism, had levels up to 25 times higher than the other vaccines, at 2.671ppb. Subsequently, multiple rounds of additional independent tests have confirmed these findings at or above the same levelsSNAP NOTE: Small amounts but injected, not eaten. Furthermore glyphosate is know to have negative health effects at low dose. 

Unique Study Causes Global Concerns over Glyphosate Damage to Freshwater Ecosystems  (Sustainable Pulse September 1, 2016) "These impacts were observed even at the concentration levels allowed by the Brazilian regulations". Link to the original article in Phycologia scientific journal.

Glyphosate Causes Changes to DNA Function Resulting in Chronic Disease, According to Study (Global Justice Ecology Project, July 20, 2016 by GJEP staff}Another study on effects of glyphosate (RoundUp) this time looking at the mechanism of action. It is used instead of glycine in molecules in DNA, therefore preventing it from assuming the right shape for being used. I guess it prevents the puzzle pieces from fitting properly..."However, EPA indicated that much of the information provided may not impact their current risk assessment for glyphosate, which is expected sometime in 2017." SNAP note: Why not? It does not help that 'industry experts'... usually form the majority (or close to) of any risk assessment committee, it also seems that they EPA's main concern is not public health. I don't think the EPA or the Canadian PMRA have any ideas on how to handle questions outside the very inadequate 'regulatory testing'.

Glyphosate Sprayed on GMO Crops Linked to Lake Erie’s Toxic Algae Bloom (EcoWatch, Lorraine Chow, 5 July 2016)  "Through his own and others' research, Spiese found that depending on the types of metal in the soil, glyphosate does release phosphorus", and phosphorus is a known link to algi blooms. RoundUp ​is a phosphonoglycine type of chemical, meaning that it contains phosphorus (P). A lot of RoundUp used in the watershed is being detected in adjacent waterways particularly in the spring, 'The researchers also found that the blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in the lake are capable of using phosophonates.'"It turns out that many cyanobacteria present in Lake Erie have the genes allowing the uptake of phosphonates, and these cyanobacteria can grow using glyphosate and other phosphonates as a sole source of phosphorus," Bullerjahn said.Also filed under water 

The Last Roundup: How the world's best-selling pesticide is heading for a fall (National ObserverBy Warren Bell in Opinion | July 4th 2016}  "Monsanto, like other large corporations, has had a special department established for this purpose (to ferociously attack any study, researcher or organization that threatens the corporation's products) for a long time." I always wondered how the scientific journal could retract the Seralinini study here it is ( with links): "By some as yet undisclosed means, a veteran Monsanto researcher, Richard E. Goodman – with a background in dairy science and immunology, but not plant science or pesticides – suddenly appeared out of nowhere on the senior editorial board of the journal that had published the Séralini paper, in a newly created position called “Associate Editor for biotechnology”."  Very well researched and great links. Warren Bell is a family physician who is Past Founding President of Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment. also filed under  industry shenanigans.

Study Finds Low Levels of Roundup Cause Adverse Effects to Soil Health (Beyond Pesticides, May 13, 2016)  A study published last month shows that the chemical is toxic to soil fungus at doses well below levels which are recommended for agricultural use. The commercial formulation of Roundup is more toxic than technical active ingredient, glyphosatehighlighting the need to evaluate full formulation effects, including so-called inert ingredients. Not only does RoundUP kill some essential soil fungi at doses well below recommended application rates, but at lower concentration affects the soil fungus’ ability to break down nutrients for energy use. Inert ingredients are called formulants n Canada and are mostlystill secret.

Gut-Wrenching New Studies Reveal the Insidious Effects of Glyphosate (by Dr Mercola. April 15, 2014) ...The bacteria in your body outnumber your cells by 10 to one. For every cell in your body, you have 10 microbes of various kinds, and all of them have the shikimate pathway, so they will all respond to the presence of glyphosate! Includes video.


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also see children

Liver and Kidney Damage Tied to Exposure to the Organophosphate Insecticide Malathion   (Beyond Pesticides, November 9, 2018) 'A Tunisian study (published in January 2018) on the effects in pre-pubertal mice of exposure to malathion — an organophosphate pesticide first registered for use in the U.S. in 1956 — demonstrates significant distortion of liver and kidney biochemistry and function in the animals. Deleterious effects include compromise of feeding ability, metabolism performance, neurologic deficits, reduction of overall body weight, and simultaneous increases in the weights of livers and kidneys, with structural anomalies and lesions in those organ.' The article also refers to other recent studies that found deleterious effects of malahion. 'Information from the (EPA) risk assessment was disturbing enough that the EPA took the uncharacteristic step; that information included evidence of histopathological lesions of the nasal cavity and larynx from exposures below the “dose” that typically causes the inactivation of acetylcholinesterase'    SNAP COMMENT:  In 2005, I attended a pesticide session when the SK government was working on the Green Strategy. I was immediately and repeatedly attacked by the Syngenta representative but won every argument. The last one of the day was about malathion. I pointed out that the US EPA had requested studies on the respiratory toxicity of malathion but had apparently not yet received any. The EPA's concern came from the even more widespread spraying of malathion for mosquito control after the West Nile virus scare. He was sure I was out to lunch and promised he would find the info and let me know. No need to say, I never heard from him. The fact is that the standard tests to determine toxicity (dose at which 1/2 of the animals die) for pesticide registration are dermal (skin) exposure and oral (eating the pesticide in food), On toxicity charts, these are the 2 measurements you will find. I have never seen a chart reporting how toxic a pesticide is when breathed in, although it is the most common form of exposure. It appears the US EPA now has received some data allowing them to publish a warning about respiratory exposure. 


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Also see SNAP's bee die-off page, wildlife page/aquatic invertebrates, birds, insects and amphibians, waterwater /Saskatchewan,   foodhealth/nervous system, cancerlegislation/regulatory/ Canada, wildlifewildlife/insectswildlife/birds,  wildlife/ fish, legislation

The Insect Apocalypse Moves Up the Food Chain: American Bird Populations in Rapid Decline Due to Pesticide Use     (Beyond Pesticides, August 18, 2020) 'Ongoing declines in bird population and diversity are being accelerated by the use of neonicotinoid insecticides, according to research published in Nature Sustainability earlier this month.    Using these models, researchers determined that for every 100kg (220 lbs) increase in the use of any neonicotinoid within a US county, grassland bird populations subsequently decrease by 2.2%, and 1.4% of non-grassland birds die-off. Similarly, 1.6% insect-eating birds are lost, and 1.5% of non-insectivorous species are killed off. Species richness, the number of different bird species in a given area, and species evenness, determined by the relative abundance of different species, also decline as neonicotinoid use increases.   The study acts as a culmination of several threads of ongoing research into the impacts of neonicotinoids on bird populations.'

Baby Bees’ Brain Growth Adversely Affected by Neonicotinoid Insecticides  (Beyond Pesticides, March 6, 2020) This research, however, examines how exposure to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, through consumption of contaminated nectar and pollen during the larval stage, affects bumblebees (Bombus terrestris audax). It finds that these exposures cause abnormal brain growth in some parts of the bees’ brains, and significantly impairs learning ability compared to bees who were not exposed....The brains of nearly 100 bees were examined, and the team found that an important part of the bee brain involved with learning — the mushroom body — was smaller in those exposed to the neonics. Smaller mushroom body volume is correlated with poorer performance in learning tasks. Bees fed with contaminated food in the larval stage show significantly impaired learning ability compared to those that are not.'The amount of pesticide residue present inside colonies following exposure appears to be an important measure for assessing the impact on a colony’s health in the future.”'Further, bee larvae have been shown to be vulnerable not only to a single pesticide, but also, to synergistic effects of the plethora of pesticides that may end up in the colony’s hive, plus the so-called “inert” ingredients in pesticide compounds. Researchers in one study noted, “One hundred and twenty-one different pesticides and metabolites were identified in the hive with an average of seven pesticides per pollen sample, including miticides, insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, and insect growth regulators.”    'The amount of pesticide residue present inside colonies following exposure appears to be an important measure for assessing the impact on a colony’s health in the future.”'    SNAP Comment: In my view, if it is affecting the development of bumblebee's brains, there is no reason it can't affect humans. 

Croplands’ Toxicity to Pollinators Has Skyrocketed Since the Turn of the Century   (Beyond Pesticides, January 28, 2020) 'Findings indicate that from 1997-2012, contact bee toxic load remained steady, while oral bee toxic load increased nine times, despite significant declines in the overall weight of insecticides applied during that time period.   The trend is particularly pronounced in the U.S. Midwest. According to the study, the widespread use of neonicotinoid seed treatments increased oral bee toxic load by 121 times. Worse yet, there is little to no evidence that these seed treatments are actually managing pest problems.

European Union Bans Neonicotinoid Insecticide, Citing Health and Environmental Concerns   (Beyond Pesticides, January 17, 2020) about the neonicotinoid Thiacloprid.  “There are environmental concerns related to the use of this pesticide, particularly its impact on groundwater, but also related to human health, in reproductive toxicity.” One commercial product in Canada: 'GENERAL INFORMATIONCalypso 480 SC Insecticide is a locally systemic and translaminar insecticide which provides control of insect pests in pome fruit. Calypso 480 SC Insecticide controls insect pests by contact action and by ingestion of the treated plant tissue. '   Pome fruits are apple type fruits and a systemic insecticide that can't be washed off is used on them. I don't believe thiacloprid is covered in the neonicotinoids that Canada will ban in a few years.

Study Finds EU Moratorium of Persistent Bee-Toxic Pesticides Cannot Eliminate Short-Term Hazards  (Beyond Pesticides, December 5, 2019)   'Five years after three neonicotinoids were banned for use on bee-attractive crops in the EU, researchers found that these bee-toxic chemicals are contaminating soils and poisoning the nectar of oilseed rape (canola). The results of this research point to an immediate need to end the use of persistent environmental contaminants and promote organic practices.  They tested for imidaclopridthiamethoxam, and clothianidin residues in the nectar of winter-sown oilseed rape in from 291 oilseed rape fields in western France for five years following the EU moratorium (2014-2018).  Results show all three neonicotinoids were present at least once in the study’s time period. Imidacloprid was detected every year with “no clear declining trend,” though its prevalence fluctuated widely between years. Two samples from 2016 show residues that are five times the expected maximum concentration in nectar of a plant directly treated with imidacloprid.   Risk peaks in 2014 and 2016 indicate that 50% of honey bees were likely to die from imidacloprid on 12% of the study plots. Risk for individual wild bees was even higher.  These data illustrate that the EU moratorium, while viewed as a a critically needed step, cannot in the short-term eliminate risk from persistent pesticides for foraging bees.'

Neonicotinoid Insecticides Deprive Fish of Food in Lake Shinji, Japan  (Beyond Pesticides, November 6, 2019)   '90% drop in their (fish) yield. Eel catches dropped by 74%. New research, published in the journal Science, implicates the introduction of neonicotinoids to the abutting watershed in the decimation of these aquatic populations, stating, “In Lake Shinji, neonicotinoids indirectly reduced fishery yields by decreasing the abundance of invertebrates that serve as food for smelt and eels.”

Toxic Pesticides Found, Again, to Yield No Increase in Productivity or Economic Benefit for Farmers Neonicotinoid-coated (or treated) seeds for soy beans.   (Beyond Pesticides, September 20, 2019) 'The study demonstrates that use of neonicotinoids (neonics) to treat seeds — a very common use of these pesticides — actually provides negligible benefits to soybean farmers in terms of yield and overall economic benefit. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should take notice, and consider that efficacy ought to have a role in the agency’s evaluation of pesticides for registration.''This new research finding underscores Beyond Pesticides’ advocacy against neonic seed treatment, and duplicates some of the findings of a 2014 EPA report, which said that use of treated soybean seed provided little-to-no overall benefit in controlling insects or improving yield or quality in soybean production.'  SNAP Comment: In all the PMRA's or EPA's cost--benefitassessments, the aalleged benefits always trump any negative effects in the final evaluation. Interesting to see here how little benefits..

Neonicotinoid Insecticides: Environmental Occurrence in Soil, Water and Atmospheric Particles  (Chapter 2 of Pesticides book, Avid Science. Renata Raina-Fulton, July 30, 2016) 
'they can partition into the particle phase in the atmosphere or be lost during or subsequent to seeding from soil dust created from planters. Presence of neonicotinoid containing particles in the atmosphere is of concern for direct exposure to bees as well as movement
in the environment such as subsequent deposition into surface waters. Concentrations of neonicotinoids in water, soil and atmospheric particles will be discussed

Insect “Honeydew” Secretions, Contaminated with Neonicotinoid Insecticides then Eaten by Other Insects, and Birds Contribute to an Expansive Threat  (Beyond Pesticides, August 9, 2019)  'Pollinators such as honey bees, solitary bees, bumblebees, and even birds have been observed feeding on honeydew.'  'Results were bad news for beneficial hoverflies and parasitic wasps. Every hoverfly that ate honeydew from the thiamethoxam-sprayed trees died within three days of exposure, compared to 10% of the control group. Of the hoverflies that consumed honeydew from the trees soil-treated with thiamethoxam, nearly 70% died, compared with 14% for the controls. Results for the parasitic wasps were marginally better: more than 50% died after consuming honeydew from both soil- and foliar-treated trees, compared with less than 20% mortality among controls. The honeydew itself was also evaluated: samples from trees treated with thiamethoxam were highly toxic to both species of beneficial insects, and honeydew from those treated with imidacloprid was moderately toxic to hoverflies.'

Same Pesticides that Are Killing Bees Killed Off Dozens of Goldfinches in Modesto, CA, Study Finds  (Beyond Pesticides, July 17, 2019)   'A March 2017 bird kill incident in Modesto, CA can be traced directly back to an insecticide “soil drench” applied to the base of several elm trees by pesticide applicators hired by the city... Researchers autopsied the birds, finding elm seeds and detectable levels of imidacloprid in the gizzard contents (between 2.2-8.5 ppm) and liver tissue (between 2.1-4.8 ppm) of the affected goldfinches, consistent with the presence of imidacloprid on elm seeds found around soil drenched trees....The City of Modesto indicates that applicators followed the label correctly. Consequently, this incident points to a serious, but not unexpected, shortfall in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) regulation of toxic pesticides.

Study Finds Synergism between Neonicotinoids and Parasites Leads to 70% Declines in Honey Bee Survival  (Beyond Pesticides, June 24, 2019)   After 42 days of spring exposure to neonicotinoids at environmentally relevant concentration, 'researchers looked for differences in response to neonicotinoid exposure depending on individual bees’ status – whether or not they were harboring mites – which varied naturally among individuals in each colony.' 'By the time autumn collections were completed, combined exposure to neonicotinoids and V. destructor were found to cause an astounding 70% reduction in survival, significantly surpassing the effects of either exposure alone. These results have strong implications for overall colony survival.'

As Pesticide Turns Up in More Places, Safety Concerns Mount  A growing body of research is challenging the assumption that neonicotinoids are safer and less likely to spread than other pesticides   (By Jim Daley, Scientific American, April 30, 2019)   'Only 2 to 20 percent of the neonicotinoids applied to seeds make it into the plant, says Jonathan Lundgren... “And we’re starting to find (the other 80-98) in other areas of the environment like surface waters and untreated plants.'  Several of the studies referred to in the article are already on SNAP's web site under wildlife but there is mention of others. Neonicotinoids have also been widely found in foods.  "Morrissey says the problem is not as simple as banning one pesticide or another, though. '“The bigger problem is that we’ve become complacent about using pesticides for everything,” she says. Lundgren says 'meaningful change will have to come from grassroots efforts.'

Flight Distance of Bumblebees Impaired by Pesticide, Leads to 87% Decline in Accessible Forage Area     (Beyond Pesticides, May 6, 2019)    'The study’s researchers find that worker bumblebees so exposed exhibit significant diminishment of flight endurance — measured as both distance and duration — to approximately one-third of what control workers demonstrate.' 

Bee-Toxic Neonicotinoid Insecticide Exposure Linked to Hormone-Dependent Breast Cancer  (Beyond Pesticides, March 7, 2019)  'environmental concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticides thiacloprid and imidacloprid increase expression of a gene linked to hormone-dependent breast cancer.'  SNAP Comment: Let's also remember that neonicotinoids were conditionally registered, i.e. registered prior to all the mandated tests submitted. In any case, it is likely that the test used in this study is part of the mandated tests as the list dates from 1984.

Scientists warn about the dangerous interaction of plant protection products (ESTONIAN RESEARCH COUNCIL, 12 MAR-2019)   'Using a hymenopteran parasitoid wasp Aphelinus abdominalis (a globally distributed species widely used in biocontrol) as a model, a team of researchers showed the enhanced effect of a low-concentration insecticide (thiacloprid) treatment when combined with various concentrations of a fungicide (tebuconazole). 'SNAP Comment: It is absolutely correct that pesticides are only evaluated one at a time, even when regularly used as a mixture like lawn chemicals (2,4-D,, mecoprop and dicamba)

Drinking Water Contaminated with Neonicotinoid Insecticide Byproducts  (Beyond Pesticides, February 8, 2019)  'The experts discovered two metabolites of imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid insecticide) residues that had not previously been identified in drinking water — desnitro-imidacloprid and imidacloprid-urea. The researchers note both that these metabolites have never been evaluated for their potential risks to human and environmental health, and that there may be potential risks of anthropogenic compounds that can be created when water with neonicotinoid residues, and thus, these metabolites, undergo typical water treatment (often chlorination and/or pH treatment)...The presence of neonics in drinking water is concerning per se, because federal regulators have never addressed what might be “safe” levels of such insecticides in tap water,

filed under water and neonicotinoids

Occurrence of Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Finished Drinking Water and Fate during Drinking Water Treatment   (Kathryn L. Klarich et al, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 2017, 4 (5), pp 168–173, April 5, 2017)  'Neonicotinoid insecticides are widespread in surface waters across the agriculturally intensive Midwestern United States. We report for the first time the presence of three neonicotinoids in finished drinking water and demonstrate their general persistence during conventional water treatment...Clothianidinimidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were ubiquitously detected in finished water samples at concentrations ranging from 0.24 to 57.3 ng/L Samples collected along the University of Iowa treatment train indicate no apparent removal of clothianidin or imidacloprid, with modest thiamethoxam removal (∼50%). In contrast, the concentrations of all neonicotinoids were substantially lower in the Iowa City treatment facility finished water using granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. 

Study Finds Bumblebees Increasingly Attracted to the Pesticides that Kill Them  (Beyond Pesticides, August 31, 2018)  'the study indicates that bees may be undertaking the human equivalent of chain-smoking themselves to death.'  'By the end of the experiment, food containing 2 parts per billion of the pesticide was eaten 10% more than in the beginning of the study. Researchers changed the location of the nectar sources throughout the experiment, but bumblebees still sought out the toxic food.'

Amsterdam Leads Bee Recovery Efforts by Banning Bee-Toxic Pesticides, Improving Habitat  (Beyond Pesticides, September 12, 2018)  "A new map published by the city identified 21 bee species not found in an earlier 1998 survey recorded by Amsterdam officials. The increase has been attributed to a range of pollinator-protective measures, including a ban on bee-toxic pesticides and the planting of native flowers, prioritized by the... city government since the turn of the century."  "While the EU recently made indefinite a ban on bee-toxic neonicotinoid insecticides in agriculture, urban spaces have been singled out for the continued risk to pollinators posed by the lawn and garden use of these chemicals. Amsterdam appears to have successfully made up the difference, banning the use of bee-toxic neonicotinoid insecticides on public city property, and encouraging residents and businesses to eliminate their use through brochures and informational pamphlets. Neonicotinoids have been implicated in the decline of wild and managed pollinators, leading governments, both large and small, to impose restrictions on their use.'SNAP Comment: Similarly, I think the proposed Canadian ban of 3 neonicotinoids is mostly on farmland. If it covers outdoor uses, it would still mean that neonicotinoids would make their way to the consumers and the environment through allowed "indoor use" in greenhouses, presumably on food and bedding plants.

Has Ottawa sold out to Big Agro and its toxic chemicals?   (By Bruce Livesey, Canada's National Observer, July 25th 2017) (#1 of 2 articles from the Special Report: Bureau of Poison) SNAP Comment: If pesticides work, why are we using more and more every year? Well researched article.  'According to Statistics Canada, the area of farmland treated with herbicides, insecticides and fungicides increased by 3 per cent, 42 per cent and 114 per cent respectively between 2001 and 2011. In Canada, 100 million kilograms of pesticides were sold in Canada in 2014 – up from 82 million kilograms in 2009.'... 'However, the Auditor General of Canada has carried out three investigations... into the PMRA since 2003 — and found it wanting.' 'In response to the Auditor’s 2015 report, last year the PMRA announced it was going to stop giving conditional registrations – but only on new pesticides, not those currently on the market. This winter, Health Canada began considering phasing out one class of neonicsimidacloprid, due to its impact on aquatic insects – but only over a three-to-five year time frame. '  "Rarely will (PMRA) take a pesticide off the market,” says Cooper. “They will tweak the label or they will add additional requirements or mitigation for the workers or application rates… But you never get to ‘Boy, this thing is bad news’.”    'But more significantly, the PMRA uses a “risk-based” assessment model that critics believe ensures no pesticide could ever be banned. But more significantly, the PMRA uses a “risk-based” assessment model that critics believe ensures no pesticide could ever be banned. '... 'Back in Alvinston, Ontario, Munro Honey continues to struggle to keep its bees alive. While queen bees used to last three to four years, Munro finds now they usually only live a year. '

Popular nicotine-based pesticides pose risk to aquatic insects: Health Canada  (By Kelsey Johnson, ipolitics, Aug 15, 2018)  'Scott Kirby, director general for Health Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency, told reporters the phasing out of all outdoor uses of the neonicotinoid pesticides (thiamethoxam and clothianadinwould occur over three to five years, once the ban is approved. Midges and mayflies are a key food source for birds and fish. The agency started its review of the two pesticides in November 2016. The length of the phase-out, currently subject to a 90-day consultation period, will depend upon whether alternative products are available. PMRA proposed a ban on outdoor uses of imidacloprid in November 2016 amid concerns about the health of mayflies and midges. A final decision is expected in December 2018, Kirby said. None of the proposed bans are currently in effect. All are subjected to public consultation. Final decisions on whether to ban thiamethoxam and clothianadin are expected in 2019.'  SNAP Comment: In their own words, it does not matter how toxic a product is, it has to have a replacement "product' before it is banned. In the meantime, God forbid they ever consider that the 'product' may not be needed at all under other methods of farming that protect biodiversity. The good news is that we can still contribute comments to the public consultation.

Trump administration lifts ban on pesticides linked to declining bee numbers   'The rollback, spelled out in a US Fish and Wildlife Service memo, ends a policy that had prohibited farmers on refuges from planting biotech crops – such as soybeans and corn – engineered to resist insect pests and weed-controlling herbicides.That policy also had barred the use on wildlife refuges of neonicotinoid pesticides, or neonics, in conjunction with GMO crops. Neonics are a class of insecticides tied by research to declining populations of wild bees and other pollinating insects around the world.'

Suburban Bees Still Vulnerable to Neonicotinoids Despite EU Ban  (Beyond Pesticides, August 1, 2018) According to new research from the University of Sussex, bees living in suburban habitats are still being exposed to high levels of neonicotinoid pesticides. Even though there is a European Union (EU) ban on these chemicals, the ban focuses on agricultural and not residential applications. The study’s authors are urging gardeners to forgo the use of these pesticides in favor of more holistic, pesticide-free approaches. 'The authors of the study say it is the first of its kind to highlight the risk to bees in urban areas posed by garden use of pesticides. Entitled Monitoring neonicotinoid exposure for bees in rural and peri-urban areas of the UK during the transition from pre- to post-moratorium, the study sampled pollen and nectar from bumblebee colonies in rural and peri-urban habitats ... over three years. Sampling began prior to the ban (2013), during the initial implementation when some seed-treated winter-sown oilseed rape was still grown (2014), and following the ban (2015). Honey bee colonies in rural habitats were also sampled to compare species-level differences between bumblebees and honey bees.'  SNAP comment: I am not aware of any Canadian study looking at the concentration of neonics in pollen and nectar in urban areas. However, a recent study looking at pesticide contamination of bedding plants have found commercial bedidng plants to be widely contaminated with neonics. In Canada, a quick search (5 August 2018) of the PMRA domestic formulations for a few neonicotinids found many Canadian registered neonicotinoids for treating fleas and lice on pets, but also for ant treatment indoors and out. Many neonicotinoids are licensed for  professionals to use in greenhouses and nurseries insects in lawn, fruit and ornamental trees. Any commercial applicator can use some for treating your lawn, trees or landscape. 

Costco takes stand on insecticides  (Western Producer, 5 July 2018)  'The grocery store chain, with more than 600 stores in the United States and Canada, said in May that it wants producers of fruits, vegetables and garden plants to stop using neonicotinoids, a class of insecticides commonly known as neonics.' 'Suppliers are encouraged to phase out the use of neonicotinoids and chlorpyrifos (an insecticide),” Costco said on its website.'“We seek to partner with suppliers who share our commitment to pollinator health and IPM (integrated pest management).”  SNAP comment: good news. I hope it covers all neonics not only imidacloprid which may be banned by Canada. I don't understand how the PMRA can conclude that a systemic pesticide can be systemic only in some uses. It defies logic: '“Certain uses of products containing imidacloprid result in uptake by plants where it then moves into nectar and/or pollen,” said Scott Kirby, director general of environmental assessment with Health Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency.'

Neonicotinoids may alter estrogen production in humans (INRS,April 26, 2018,/ by Stéphanie Thibault)   An INRS team publishes the first-ever in vitro study demonstrating the potential effects of these pesticides on human health in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives...The results of the study show an increase in aromatase expression and a unique change in the pattern in which aromatase was expressed, which is similar to that observed in the development of certain breast cancers. (Also filed under cancer/Links between individal chemicals...)

Study disputes popular pesticides’ effectiveness (Globe and Mail, 26 Feb.2018)'A new study raises questions about the effectiveness of the two most popular types of agricultural pesticides, noting overreliance on the chemicals causes environmental harm while doing little to boost crop yields.'..The new paper reviewed more than 200 studies. Researchers found other methods of pest control are more effective and less harmful to the environment. In addition to crop rotation, these methods include planting pest-resistant crops and the purchase of insurance, which is less expensive than pesticides. The paper's authors said they studied neonicotinoids and fipronil because they together hold the largest share of pesticides used around the world. But they cautioned that other pesticides pose threats to the environment and public health.'

Long-term yield trends of insect-pollinated crops vary regionally and are linked to neonicotinoid use, landscape complexity, and availability of pollinators (Heikki M. T. Hokkanen et al,  Arthropod-Plant Interactions, June 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 449–461, First Online: 21 April 2017) a Finnish study. 'It appears that only the uptake of neonicotinoid insecticide seed dressing about 15 years ago can explain the crop yield declines in several provinces, and at the national level for turnip rapeseed, most likely via disruption of pollination services by wild pollinators.' 

A worldwide survey of neonicotinoids in honey   E. A. D. Mitchell1,2,* et al  (Science  06 Oct 2017: Vol. 358, Issue 6359, pp. 109-111)   We assessed the global exposure of pollinators to neonicotinoids by analyzing 198 honey samples from across the world. We found at least one of five tested compounds (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in 75% of all samples, 45% of samples contained two or more of these compounds, and 10% contained four or five. 

Neonicotinoid Seed Coatings Create Exposure Hazards for Honey Bees and Fail to Increase Yields  (Beyond Pesticides, May 31, 2017) This article deals with corn and soy. In Saskatchewan, most of our canola is treated with neonics and U of S studies have shown widespread contamination of sloughs. “There was a misconception that any bees not living near corn were likely to be fine. But that’s not true, and it’s clear that these insecticides are reaching into the places bees forage and putting them at risk.” The research team set up neonic dust collection traps at 12 corn fields around Indiana and collected samples over two years to determine the levels of pesticide dust at increasing distances from the corn field edges. The data demonstrate the movement of neonic residues outside the borders of planted fields, and the researchers estimate that residues on non-target lands and waterways will be deposited on over 42% of the state of Indiana during the corn planting season." 

Common pesticide damages honey bee's ability to fly  (phys.org. April 26, 2017) 

Common pesticide damages honey bee's ability to fly (phys.org. April 26, 2017)  A study published April 26 in Scientific Reports by UC San Diego postdoctoral researcher Simone Tosi, Biology Professor James Nieh, along with Associate Professor Giovanni Burgio of the University of Bologna, Italy, describes in detail how the neonicotinoid pesticide thiamethoxam damages honey bees. "Our results provide the first demonstration that field-realistic exposure to this pesticide alone, in otherwise healthy colonies, can alter the ability of bees to fly, specifically impairing flight distance, duration and velocity" said Tosi. "Honey bee survival depends on its ability to fly, because that's the only way they can collect food. Their flight ability is also crucial to guarantee crop and wild plant pollination."  another article on same topic Neoniocotinoid Pesticides Impair Bees’ Ability to Fly (Beyond Pesticides, May 3, 2017)

Report Documents Threats to Aquatic Life, Calls for Phase-Out of Neonicotinoid Use  (Beyond Pesticides, April 14, 2017) – As pollinators nationwide suffer severe declines tied to widespread exposure to pesticides, particularly a family of insecticides known as neonicotinoids, a new report details the chemicals’ dramatic impacts on aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity. This report coincides with findings of neonicotinoids in drinking water.The new report, Poisoned Waterwaysdocuments the persistence of neonicotinoids in U.S. waterbodies and the danger they cause to aquatic organisms, resulting in complex cascading impacts on aquatic food web. The report supports previous calls for the restriction of neonicotinoid pesticides, given their high toxicity to bees, and now aquatic life. Poisoned Waterways reviews the current scientific literature on the effects of neonicotinoids in waterways and the life they support. The report also highlights current regulatory failures of EPA aquatic standards, which continue to underestimate risks to sensitive species due to a reliance on test protocols that do not reflect real-world exposures or susceptibilities. Further, the impacts of chemical mixtures and synergistic interactions are not considered.

By Killing Beneficial Insects, Neonic-Coated Seeds Increase Pesticide Dependency, Just Like Other Insecticide Applications (Beyond Pesticides, December 16, 2016)  A new meta-analysis has challenged the belief that neonicotinoid (neonic) insecticide seed coatings have little to no effect on the health of beneficial predatory insect populations —on the contrary, researchers have found that the seed coatings impact predatory insects as much as broadcast applications of other insecticides...As predicted, the population of predatory insects are reduced in the plots where coated seeds are planted, compared to the plots that are untreated by insecticides. Additionally, the meta-analysis finds that coated seeds affected predatory insect populations similarly to soil and broadcast applications of pyrethroids.

Expert panel: Should we ban neonicotinoid pesticides? (Evidence for Democracy) "The current scientific evidence on the negative impacts of neonicotinoids on wildlife is very compelling and is growing rapidly. There are numerous peer-reviewed studies showing lethal and sublethal effects on a variety of taxa... As Canadians, I believe we should be thinking about where are agricultural sector is heading and what the implications are for biodiversity and human health."Sheila R. Colla

Half of the Total Decline in Wild Bees throughout the UK Linked to Use of Neonics (Beyond Pesticides, August 18, 2016)  Decline of wild bee populations is linked to the use of toxic, systemic neonicotinoid (neonic) pesticides used on oilseed rape (canola), according to new research done by a team of scientists at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology in the United Kingdom.The study, Impacts of neonicotinoid use on long-term population changes in wild bees in England, published in the journal Nature Communications, analyzed 18 years of UK national wild bee distribution data for 62 different species, and related it to amounts of neonicotinoid use. NOTE: Interesting for Saskatchewan as canola is a major user of neonic seed treatment.

Insecticides Similar to Nicotine Found in about Half of Sampled Streams across the United States 8/18/2015.U.S. Geological Survey.USGS discovered insecticides known as neonicotinoids in a little more than half of both urban and agricultural streams sampled across the United States and Puerto Rico, according to a study by the agency published today in Environmental Chemistry. “In the study, neonicotinoids occurred throughout the year in urban streams while pulses of neonicotinoids were typical in agricultural streams during crop planting season,” said USGS research chemist Michelle Hladik, the report’s lead author. Also filed under water

Neonicotinoids Hinder Bee’s Ability to Smell Flowers (Beyond Pesticides, June 29, 2015)...'a neonicotinoid pesticide, at sublethal doses, harms this odor memory formation,” Chinese Academy of Science’s Ken Tan, who led the study, told CBS News in an email interview.' 'Published in Nature on June 18, 2015, the study finds that “adults that ingested a single imidacloprid dose as low as 0.1 ng/bee had significantly reduced olfactory learning acquisition, which was 1.6-fold higher in control bees. Bees exposed as larvae to a total dose of 0.24 ng/bee had significantly impaired olfactory learning when tested as adults; control bees exhibited up to 4.8-fold better short-term learning acquisition.” Researchers conclude that this sublethal cognitive deficit caused by low dose exposure to neonicotinoids on a broad range of bee species is cause for further study. also published under Bee Die-off. 

EPA: Those Bee-Killing Pesticides? They're Actually Pretty Useless—Tom Philpott on Sat. October 18, 2014 5:00 AM PDT. At least for soybeans, it seems that seed treatment with neonicotinoids has no effect on yield. 

The Birds and the Bees - and the Pesticides. CBC Quirks and Quarks.Thursday, October 2, 2014. Documentary on the effects of neonicotinoids. CropLife persists in saying the levels are small, ignoring the facts indicating that there are documented effects on wildlife at those levels. 

Neonicotinoid Insecticides: Increasing Usage and Potential Threats. (April 3, 2014. OSA webinar series. Presented by Dr Lisa Williams, Branch Chief, Environmental Contaminants, East Lansing Ecological Services Field Office). This very informative scientific talk was prepared for the Office of the Science Advisor Webinar Series of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. To be added to the webinar series contact megan_cook@fws.gov  It reviews neonicotinoids, how they behave and their persistence in the environment, as well as their environmental as well as immune suppressing and other health effects. It relates the precipitous decline in butterflies with the increased use of neonicotinoids. Complicated science made simple. Good references. 

New Study Exposes Range of Harm from Neonicotinoid Pesticides (Beyond Pesticides, June 18, 2013)   Soil half-life of the most commonly used seed treatments can range from 200- 1000 days. Clothianidin has the potential to remain in soil for 6,931 days (nearly 19 years!) before degrading .“Studies from the US suggest that neonicotinoid seed dressings may be either entirely ineffective or cost more than the benefit in crop yield gained from their use. We seem to be in a situation where farmers are advised primarily by agronomists involved in selling them pesticides.” says Dr Gouslon.

Pre-Harvest Herbicides (essentially used as Dessicants)

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Be aware of pre-harvest herbicide application restrictions (Western Producer, Aug. 1st, 2015 by Thom Weir PAg) This article lists the herbicides registered in Canada for 'pre-harvest' use equivalent to dessication (without using the term dessication), and their use restrictions. SNAP Comment: I assume the articie is accurate as to date of publication. I have not yet been able to find if there are more regulatory requirements in registering a dessicant than a herbicide. Also see Glyphosate section above.

Sulfonylurea herbicides

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 I decided to add this page because I learnt some pesticide formulations containing sulfonylureas are still in use, including Clear for the control of Wild Parsnip in Ontario where a recent incident involved the soaking of a farmer sitting on his tractor while trying to get out of his yard. Too many individual herbicides to check for registration, I am afraid, but I am providing a list of names.

The fact that they cause total or almost total crop failures in fruit trees and strawberries was on the news in the early 1990s but now no one talks about it. It likely still occurs. You should be aware of it and so should anyone using it. 

'Sulfonylureas (UK: sulphonylurea) are a class of organic compounds used in medicine and agriculture... A large number of sulfonylureas are used as herbicides. They function by interfering with biosynthesis of the amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine, specifically via acetolactate synthase inhibition. Agricultural compounds in this class include amidosulfuron, azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, chlorimuron-ethyl, chlorsulfuron, ethametsulfuron-methyl, cinosulfuron, ethoxysulfuron, flazasulfuron, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, imazosulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron, oxasulfuron, primisulfuron-methyl, prosulfuron, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, rimsulfuron, sulfometuron-methyl, sulfosulfuron, thifensulfuron-methyl, triasulfuron, tribenuron-methyl, and triflusulfuron-methyl.21'    (Wikipedia) 

Effects of Glean, A Sulfonylurea Herbicide, on the Reproductive Biology and Fruit Set in Cherry Trees (Glean's active ingrredient is CHLORSULFURON)

Sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone: Neonicotinoids or not ?

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see also   Bee Die-off

Insecticides the Pesticide Industry Said Were “Safer for Bees” Found to Stress and Kill Honey Bees    (Beyond Pesticides, June 23, 2020)  'As reported, a study by researchers at Oregon State University in the journal PLOS Onesulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone (in the products Transform and Sivanto, respectively) were found to increase apoptosis (cell death) and increase oxidative stress in exposed honey bees. The study indicates that, “With the recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval for use of both flupyradifurone and sulfoxaflor, and with the growing concern regarding pollinator health, it is important to better understand any potential negative impacts (especially sub-lethal) of these pesticides on bees.” However, this statement begs the question ‘why these two new bee-toxic pesticide were approved by EPA in the first place.’.    Independent scientific data has already been established on the harm these pesticides pose to pollinators. Last year, EPA registered new uses of sulfoxaflor, despite these warning signs. “Proposing to register sulfoxaflor for use on bee-attractive crops, in the midst of an ongoing pollinator crisis, is the height of irresponsibility,” said Drew Toher, community resource and policy director for Beyond Pesticides in an interview for Bloomberg Environment. “When all of the available data points to significant risks to pollinators from use of this chemical, we must face the facts: EPA is working towards the protection of pesticide industry, not the environment,” he said. EPA is in the midst of a lawsuit challenging its approval of sulfoxaflor.  The Saving America’s Pollinators Act (SAPA) was amended last year by Representative Blumenhauer to include immediate restrictions in the use of flypyradifurone and sulfoxaflor, in addition to the neonicotinoid insecticides that continue to poison pollinator populations. (US readers: go to the original article for action on this issue)    SNAP Comment: Well, the insecticides are also approved in Canada. As of 10 July 2020, 5 labels (including Transform) are listed for sulfoxaflor and 6 labels for flupyradifurone including Sivanto. As the question of why these products were approved, I suspect it is as replacement for neonicotinoids banned or about to be banned. Another indication that banning one produt at a time after a replacement is found is ridiculous to ensure safety. 

Sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone:  Neonicotinoids or not ? (PAN Europe, Sept 2016)   The pesticide industry is trying to hide the reality behind two new chemicals that are similar to the notorious group of neonicotinoids linked to massive bee death all over the world.

Their properties clearly show that they should be classified as neonicotinoids.

General conclusion
This factsheet has demonstrated how pesticide companies make use of pseudo-science to give their new pesticides a more positive image. In the frame of the ever greater interest of the general public in the relation between pesticide use and health damage, including bee health, the fact that pesticide companies themselves decide what category a pesticide belongs to, for mere regulatory or marketing purposes should not be authorised.
Sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone are neonicotinoid insecticides. They should be treated accordingly by regulator, taking into account their systemicity and the harm they could cause to non-target organism

Because of this detailed factsheet, articles about these 2 chemicals will be under their own section of this page from now on. This is an important distinction because, as neonicotinoids are shown to have such a massive effects on pollinators, companies want to keep on  registering insecticides with the same mode of action without the bad press of calling them neonicotinoids. France, which banned many neonicotinoids, has recently approved those two because the regulators have been fooled. There is currently (November 2017) a campaign to ask for France to 'Ban all bee-killing pesticides!' Please consider signing and sharing. 

Sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone:  Neonicotinoids or not ? (PAN Europe, Sept 2016)   The pesticide industry is trying to hide the reality behind two new chemicals that are similar to the notorious group of neonicotinoids linked to massive bee death all over the world.

Their properties clearly show that they should be classified as neonicotinoids.

General conclusion
This factsheet has demonstrated how pesticide companies make use of pseudo-science to give their new pesticides a more positive image. In the frame of the ever greater interest of the general public in the relation between pesticide use and health damage, including bee health, the fact that pesticide companies themselves decide what category a pesticide belongs to, for mere regulatory or marketing purposes should not be authorised.
Sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone are neonicotinoid insecticides. They should be treated accordingly by regulator, taking into account their systemicity and the harm they could cause to non-target organisms such as bees.


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Rodenticides (Chemical Watch Fact Sheet, Vol. 20, Pesticides and You, No. 4, 2000-2001) Sorry, this is old but still relevant. However many new chemicals have come on the market since then.

Ask Retailers to Care About Kids™
and Pull Toxic Pesticide Product from Shelves  Group Renews Call for Immediate Stop to Sale of Toxic Rodenticides     (Beyond Pesticides, May 30, 2014)  USA

Anti-coagulants are often the main method of rodent control and they have terrible effects on other species eating affected rodents. There are many new classes of anti-coagulants on the market. They are, of course, used in medicine for several conditions. However, they would likely, like most medications, come out at the other end and end up contaminating water. I haven't found any studies on that. 

I looked on the Internet for fact sheets regarding anti-coagulants and wildlife and am still searching. 

Picloram, product nameTordon

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Yes, picloram has been known to kill plants when contaminating compost. As of 6 March 2020, a PMRA label search indicates there are still 8 picloram products registered in Canada: 7 commercial and 1 technical active. None are restricted. Products are sold under a few names: Tordon, Ram, Grazon and Aspect.

Various products are used for application to rangeland and permanent grass pastures for perennial weeds and/or rights-of-way only to control unwanted brush and broadleaf weeds.

March 2020:  'One of the chemicals that Coastal Gas Link is asking permission to spray on their new pipeline route through endangered caribou habitat and pristine British Columbian wilderness, is Tordon 22K, a picloram-based herbicide. This stuff leaches into groundwater and is known to persist. (Stop the Spray BC)

I believe it is still used by Sask Power under power lines ( don't quote me on that). Obviously still used in agriculture. How much is used in SK or Canada is anyone's guess.

Picloram (Panna Pesticide Data Base) is considered a bad actor chemical. a groundwater contaminant, and a suggested endocrine disruption chemical.


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EPA sneaks approval for harmful herbicide

The bad news is that this chemical has been on the Canadian market since 1999. It now has 7 labels including 2 technical. more on pesticides at www.saskinfo.ca

'Isoxaflutole, manufactured by the German agrichemical giant BASF, combines the worst of glyphosate and dicamba — it’s a weedkiller EPA itself has determined is likely to cause cancer and drift hundreds of feet from where it is applied.

EPA approved isoxaflutole for use in 25 states by sidestepping the usual public input process for the decision. The herbicide’s registration was opened for public comment, but not listed in the federal register. Scientists shared that the press release EPA issued around the approval caught everyone off guard, as they were waiting for the comment period to open and never got word that it already had


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EPA Registers Toxic Pesticide for Use on GE Soybeans without Required Opportunity for Public Comment   (Beyond Pesticides, April 7, 2020) 

'Last week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered a carcinogenic herbicide for new uses without following  the required public notification and comment process, the Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting (MCIR) reports. The chemical in question, isoxaflutole, is a broadleaf weedkiller that can now be applied to genetically engineered (GE) soybeans in half of U.S. states. Health and environmental groups are outraged by EPA’s furtive move, accusing the agency of colluding with the pesticide industry.

A 2018 study found no evidence that rotating herbicides is an effective strategy to manage weeds. Farmers with high levels of resistance retain high weed density, no matter what new chemical are thrown at them. In fact, once a weed develops resistance to one herbicide, it is much more likely to develop resistance to other weedkillers.'

pentachlorophenol, 2,4Dpyrethrins and pyrethrins

New Study Exposes Range of Harm from Neonicotinoid Pesticides (Beyond Pesticides, June 18, 2013)   Soil half-life of the most commonly used seed treatments can range from 200- 1000 days. Clothianidin has the potential to remain in soil for 6,931 days (nearly 19 years!) before degrading .“Studies from the US suggest that neonicotinoid seed dressings may be either entirely ineffective or cost more than the benefit in crop yield gained from their use. We seem to be in a situation where farmers are advised primarily by agronomists involved in selling them pesticides.” says Dr Gouslon.

Pesticide Factsheets (NCAP) These fact sheets detail health effects of pesticides. Not all pesticides on the market are coveredbecause so little independent research exists for most of them. The chemicals covered are (or were at the time of the writing) widely used with enough independent research.

Gateway on Pesticide Hazards and Safe Pest Management (Beyond Pesticides)

PANNA Pesticide data Base

New Study: Why Glyphosate Should be Banned Institute of Science in Society report (UK) through the Organic Consumer Association

Effects of RoundUp on neighbouring garden at the South Zone Community Garden, Regina.

Potato plants stunted by RoundUP used in the garden to the right of the string. The effect spread close to 1 meter in the adjoining garden.

Potato plants stunted by RoundUP used in the garden to the right of the string. The effect spread close to 1 meter in the adjoining garden.

Onions stunted by RoundUp used in the garden to the left.

Onions stunted by RoundUp used in the garden to the left.

Peppers stunted by RoundUp used in the garden to the left.

Peppers stunted by RoundUp used in the garden to the left.