• Driving Near Recently Sprayed Fields Exposes People to Pesticides
  • Learn to Keep Insects Out of your Crops
  • Link to SK Organic Resources
  • SNAP Tour of Organic Vegetable Garden
  • Learn To Manage Weeds Without Chemical Pesticides
  • Learn About Pesticides in Foods
  • Learn About Colony Collapse Disorder and How to Protect Bees
  • Weeds Can Be Managed Without Chemical Pesticides
  • Learn to Manage Pests Naturally
  • LIving Near Fields Increases Pesticide Exposure

for Integrated Weed Management go to alternatives/weeds


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also see Lawn/Turf

The Facts on Integrated Pest Management (IPM); The Top-5 Reasons Why IPM For Urban Landscapes Is Flawed (April 2004) 

Ending Toxic Dependency: State laws allows broad dependency on toxic pesticides. Only four U.S. states call for pesticide reduction and alternatives. "IPM is a term that has no agreed upon definition, and has been widely misused by the chemical and pest control industry”, while "organic agricultural practices are clearly codified."

Advancing Alternatives 2000 (PANNA report)  This report is designed to be a useful resource for individuals, organizations and institutions interested in adopting least-toxic Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods in urban and suburban settings. It is divided into two equally important parts: case studies of successful IPM programs and a set of appendices that provide useful contacts for IPM programs, IPM consultants and organizations working towards pesticide reduction.


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After three years and no improvement in the amount of pesticide spraying by the city of Regina, the IPM committe was disbanded.

Unknown History of the Regina IPM committee. SNAP’s Submission to the Regina Integrated Pest Management Advisory Committee (March 6, 2007)

Regina IPM comm terms of ref 1-2004

Hjertaas's Presentation on IPM to the Parks and Community Services Committee, city of Regina, Jan 21, 2004.


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see also reduction strategy

Integrated Pest Management and Pesticides on Ontario Golf Courses Full Report (www.PreventCancerNow.ca,  November 2020) 

Study Finds that Pollinators, Not Pesticides, Are More Important to Higher Crop Yields    (Beyond Pesticides, November 23, 2022) SNAP Comment: no surprise. ' In the course of watermelon production over a span of two years, pollination, not pest levels, was the key determining factor for yield.  Action levels are considered an important aspect of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach in agriculture, whereby a pest infestation reaches levels considered economically unacceptable, leading to a decision to engage in pest control. The concept of IPM however has been influenced by the chemical industry over the decades since its original definition and recent data indicates that it has failed to stop toxic pesticide use. The original intent of IPM was the adoption of preventive practices and utilization of nonchemical tools, placing pesticide use as a last resort when pest control is warranted. As the study finds, “This collective work, including the data reported here, strongly suggest that in watermelon, and potentially other pollinator-dependent crops, insecticide applications, counterintuitively, have a higher likelihood of reducing than increasing yields due to interference with bee foraging and the lack of threat posed by the pest community.' 

Did Ontario Golf Courses reduce pesticide use with Integrated Pest Management? (Prevent Cancer Now, November 2020) 'Fast forward 10 years: Prevent Cancer Now asked the Ontario Government and the IPM Council of Canada whether or not pesticide use had decreased on Ontario golf courses. Neither could answer. As a result Prevent Cancer Now examined reports from 16 higher-end Ontario golf courses to determine whether use of pesticides had declined. Key findings of the study include:

  • overall, use of herbicides, fungicides and insecticides increased between 2010 and 2017 (see bar chart above);
  • three fungicides, three herbicides and all insecticides used on the studied Ontario golf courses have been identified as “highly hazardous” by international authorities (e.g., World Health Organization, European Union and US EPA);
  • a small number of courses fared better than others, applying one fifth the amount of pesticides (measured as equivalent hectares treated) compared with high users (see line graph below);'

SNAP Comment: For all practical purposes, the answer is mostly NO. Why? Likely because of who the IPM Council or Canada is (industry associations and groups committed to having IPM as standard) and their widely used faulty definition of IPM used. An appropriate definition of IPM prioritizes non-toxic methods first rather than considering chemical pesticides as a same level option.

IPM (Integrated Pest Management) Fails to Stop Toxic Pesticide Use (Beyond Pesticides, October 15, 2021) Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a 60-year-old approach to agricultural practice that, when first conceived and implemented, had among its goals a significant reduction of synthetic pesticide use, and the health, environmental, and ecosystemic benefits that would flow from that. However, as a study published earlier in 2021 concluded, IPM has overall been unsuccessful in achieving those goals. The researchers propose to replace IPM with “Agroecological Crop Protection ACP,” the application of agroecology to protecting crops from damage (usually by insects or weeds).

Biological Pest Controls Combat Citrus Disease after Pesticide Failure (Beyond Pesticides August 9, 2013) This use of biological pest control demonstrates that the use of toxic chemicals is unnecessary as safer alternatives have already been proven effective.

Goats Replace Herbicides at Historic Washington, DC Landmark  (Beyond Pesticides, August 8, 2013) 

Research Shows Structural IPM Confronts Pests and Reduces Pesticides
(Beyond Pesticides, February 3, 2012) A new study recently published in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management (JIPM) shows that from 2003 to 2008 the use of insecticide active ingredients was reduced by about 90% in University of Florida (UF) housing buildings after an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program was implemented...

New Study Finds “Single Visit” IPM Successful in NYC Public Housing (Beyond Pesticides, April 21, 2009) 

more on pesticide alternatives