• SNAP Display at Event
  • LIving Near Fields Increases Pesticide Exposure
  • Link to SK Organic Resources
  • Grow a Lush Garden Organically
  • SNAP Tour of Organic Vegetable Garden
  • Learn to Manage Pests Naturally
  • Driving Near Recently Sprayed Fields Exposes People to Pesticides
  • Learn To Manage Weeds Without Chemical Pesticides
  • Learn About Colony Collapse Disorder and How to Protect Bees
  • Weeds Can Be Managed Without Chemical Pesticides


also see Health/respiratoryimmune/auto-immune, liver disease,  body burdenspetsforestry/herbicides, formulants/inerts/toxicity, pesticide drift/research.

Weed Killer 2,4-D’s Adverse Effect on the Liver Adds to List of Hazards from Food, Lawn, and Water Residues    (Beyond Pesticides, February 21, 2024) In addition to its effects including cancer, and reproductive, immune or nervous system disruption, according to international findings, a review published in Toxics finds that the the widely used weed killer 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) causes significant changes in liver structure and function2,4-D can damage liver cells, tissue, and inflammatory responses through the induction of oxidative stress. ..  The review primarily focuses on structural damage and chemical biomarkers indicating toxicity to the liver and its function. Assessing studies from PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, researchers found 83 articles on liver effects and exposure to 2,4-D, ranging from in vivo (in living organisms) models (~70%) to in vitro (in test tube) models (~30%). Most studies focused on the 2,4-D as an active ingredient, while the remainder focused on commercial formulations of 2,4-D...   From 1974 up to the present day, studies in this review highlight what many studies have previously: 2,4-D has a negative impact on the liver both structurally and biochemically. The review highlights that oxidative stress increases the progression of 2,4-D-induced liver damage. Yet, the lack of studies on the mechanism of action, targets, and molecular pathways involved in liver toxicity needs further understanding.

Health Implications: Common Herbicide 2,4-D Threatens Most Species Health, Especially Vertebrates   While 2,4-D use had often been replaced by glyphosate, it is making a comeback in formulation with glyphosate for GMO crops. It is also apparently still used in B.C.forestry.    (Beyond Pesticides, April 5, 2022) 'A meta-analysis by the Federal University of Technology – Paraná finds the herbicide 2,4-D causes indiscriminate harm, increasing the mortality rate among exposed animals. The severity of chemical exposure relies on species sensitivity, exposure rate, and lifecycle stage. However, commercial formulations of 2,4-D, commonly used in the environment, prompt a higher species mortality rate than technical (pure) 2,4-D alone. Like many other common herbicides such as glyphosate, 2,4-D has global uses that allow the chemical to accumulate in the environment, including soils, waterways, and tissues of non-target species.  ... vertebrates experience higher mortality rates from 2,4-D exposure, with fish and birds presenting the highest mortality rate.  (2.4-D) is a possible human carcinogen (e.g., soft tissue sarcoma and nonHodgkin lymphoma), can cause neurotoxicities like the development of ALS and loss of smell, kidney/liver damage, and endocrine disruption. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finds babies born near areas of high 2,4-D use, such as farming communities, have higher rates of birth abnormalities, respiratory and cardiovascular issues, and developmental defects. 

Outcry grows as B.C. government agency plans widespread South Coast herbicide spray     The five-year Pest Management Plan, which covers Squamish to Hope, targets native hard woods and Indigenous medicines and food in efforts to increase lumber output. (by Charlie Carey, North Shore News, 24 march 2022)   'The proposed management plan would come into effect on April 1, 2022, and cover the Chilliwack and Sea to Sky Natural Resources District, including the traditional unceded territories of the Stó:lō, St’át’imc, Nlaka'pamux, xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), and Tsleil-Waututh First Nations. The proposed plan is for five years, ending in 2027.    While the notice was printed in the local newspaper in Hope, along with the draft proposal available online, it does not include a map of specified locations where herbicides such as glyphosatetriclopyr (Garlon, Release) and 2,4-D (Formula 40) will be used.    The management plan highlights cottonwood, red alder, salmonberry, red elderberry, devil’s club, thimbleberry, salal, fireweed, huckleberry and blueberry as plants which will be targeted by the proposal. All of which, Rose said, Indigenous people have used as medicines and food for thousands of years.“Our rush to get rid of these, so called, competing species is making our forests more vulnerable to wildfire,”'  SNAP Comment: and tht is how you turn a forest into a plantation...

One in three Americans have detectable levels of toxic weedkiller, study finds  
(Nina Lakhani, The guardian,  9 February 2022)   'Human exposure to 2,4-D has substantially risen despite a multitude of health and environmental concerns.   As the pesticide grew in popularity among farmers and gardeners, so did evidence of human exposure, rising from a low of 17% in 2001-02 to a high of almost 40% a decade later.  Exposure to high levels of 2,4-D, an ingredient of Agent Orange used against civilians during the Vietnam war, has been linked to cancers including leukemia in children, birth defects and reproductive problems among other health issues... While little is known about the impact of low-level exposure to the herbicide, it does disrupt the endocrine system. Link to the study Environmental Health,    Overall, the amount of 2,4-D applied in agriculture increased 67% between 2012 and 2020, but its use will almost certainly grow sharply over the next decade due to the widespread use of the controversial weedkiller Enlist Duo – a relatively newly approved combo (2,4-D and glyphosate) for genetically modified crops.'   SNAP Comment: In Canada the PMRA currently registers 142 pesticides containing 2,4-D.

Popular weedkiller may cause cancer, World Health Organization agency says Ariana Eunjung Cha / The Washington Post, 6 July 2015. 2,4-D, sprayed widely on farms and used in a number of popular lawn-care products has been designated as "possibly" carcinogenic to humans by a World Health Organization research arm. 2,4,5-T was the main part of Agent Orange containing a lot of dioxins and has been banned for a while. but 2,4-D contains dioxins too. However, they are not the kind companies have to report on, so are not regularly measured. More on 2,4-D and dioxins under registration below.

October 2008 Dow Invokes NAFTA to Challenge Pesticide Bans (Canada) on the basis that the PMRA declared it 'safe' in 2007. 1. It is illegal under Canadian law to say a pesticide is safe. 2. 2,4-D is a chlorophenoxy herbicide, a class with no required neurotoxicity studies. 3. The Canadian Government testing requirements have not changed since 1984 and are therefore outdated. 4. Until 2007, Canada had no adverse effects reporting of negative pesticide health effects. Now we have a program voluntary for everyone except the pesticide manufacturers who have to disclose adverse effects to the government when reported to them.

Re-evaluation of the Lawn and Turf Uses of (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic Acid 2,4-D PACR2005-01   The PMRA's conclusion was that "2,4-D is efficacious against certain problematic broadleaf weeds on turf and there are no alternative herbicides to phenoxyalkanoic and benzoic acid herbicides on turf. Considering that weed control on turf is important, it is concluded that 2,4-D on turf has value." (p 31) and value trumps all...

PMRA premature in re-registering 2,4-D (link fixed)

2, 4-D Comments on Proposed Acceptability for Continuing Registration (PACR Series) 2005
Re-evaluation of the Lawn and Turf Uses of (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)acetic Acid 2,4-D
(PACR2005-01) February 21, 2005 - 555Kb by Paule Hjertaas

An Open Letter concerning the PMRA's re-evaluation of 2,4-D, as prepared by CCHE