• Learn About Colony Collapse Disorder and How to Protect Bees
  • Learn To Manage Weeds Without Chemical Pesticides
  • Grow a Lush Garden Organically
  • Learn About Pesticides in Foods
  • Learn to Manage Pests Naturally
  • Driving Near Recently Sprayed Fields Exposes People to Pesticides
  • SNAP Display at Event
  • Learn to Keep Insects Out of your Crops
  • LIving Near Fields Increases Pesticide Exposure
  • SNAP Tour of Organic Vegetable Garden

Liver Disease

also see pesticide fact sheets/malathion, glyphosate, glyphosate p.2neonicotinoids  and health/kidneyendocrine disruption,  children /glyphosate, 2,4-D

Weed Killer 2,4-D’s Adverse Effect on the Liver Adds to List of Hazards from Food, Lawn, and Water Residues    (Beyond Pesticides, February 21, 2024) In addition to its effects including cancer, and reproductive, immune or nervous system disruption, according to international findings, a review published in Toxics finds that the the widely used weed killer 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) causes significant changes in liver structure and function2,4-D can damage liver cells, tissue, and inflammatory responses through the induction of oxidative stress. ..  The review primarily focuses on structural damage and chemical biomarkers indicating toxicity to the liver and its function. Assessing studies from PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, researchers found 83 articles on liver effects and exposure to 2,4-D, ranging from in vivo (in living organisms) models (~70%) to in vitro (in test tube) models (~30%). Most studies focused on the 2,4-D as an active ingredient, while the remainder focused on commercial formulations of 2,4-D...   From 1974 up to the present day, studies in this review highlight what many studies have previously: 2,4-D has a negative impact on the liver both structurally and biochemicallyThe review highlights that oxidative stress increases the progression of 2,4-D-induced liver damage. Yet, the lack of studies on the mechanism of action, targets, and molecular pathways involved in liver toxicity needs further understanding.

Low-Dose Chronic Glyphosate Exposure Increases Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease      (Beyond Pesticides, December 21, 2023) A new study published in Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology adds to prior research indicating glyphosate promotes the occurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through diet by causing liver inflammation and oxidative stress. More importantly, the predisposition for NAFLD occurred at levels within toxicological limits, which are doses of glyphosate classified as causing no adverse effects or No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL).  NAFLD is a condition that causes swelling of the liver and can eventually lead to cirrhosis, cancer, or liver failure.    Health officials estimate about 100 million individuals in the U.S. have NAFLD, with NAFLD being the most common liver disease among children. Cases of NAFLD have doubled over the past 20 years.   However, glyphosate did increase the rate (upregulation) of 212 genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver while downregulating 731 genes related to cell division. Muouse study. 

Glyphosate Exposure Associated with Liver and Metabolic Disorders in Children, Young Adults    (Beyond Pesticides, March 7, 2023) ..'according to research published in Environmental Health Perspectives. California study based on CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas) study.  'The results confirm there is cause for concern among young people’s exposure to glyphosate. At age 5, urinary levels of glyphosate’s primary breakdown product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) was associated with an increase in transaminases, liver enzymes that can cause harm at high levels in the body, as well as a nearly 2x increased risk of metabolic syndrome. This trend associating glyphosate exposure with adverse effects held throughout early adulthood. Glyphosate and AMPA exposure significantly increased risk of metabolic syndrome in 14-year-olds. When paired with data on the amount of agricultural use glyphosate in a given area, having lived near an a site where glyphosate was applied from birth until 5 years of age was associated with having metabolic syndrome at age 18.

Study Connects Neonicotinoids to Liver Damage Ignored by EPA    (Beyond Pesticides, January 11, 2022) Neonicotinoid insecticides can have detrimental effects on liver health, according to research published in the Journal of Hazardous Materials. (Chinese study)    Scientists determined the amount of eight neonicotinoids in bile samples, including acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam.  Researchers found that neonicotinoids are neither metabolized by the liver nor excreted by urine. Of all samples taken, at least one neonicotinoid was detected in 99% of individuals tested. However, different neonicotinoids were found to act in different ways. While the detection of acetamiprid was low (1% of samples), 97% contained nitenpyram. The widely used insecticide dinotefuran was detected in 86% of bile. Detections did not appear to differ between participants of different health backgrounds.(cancer vs control).   The results led scientists to believe that neonicotinoids found in bile will eventually be absorbed again by the intestines, make their way into blood, and eventually one’s liver. Biomarkers tested, such as cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile acids, were found to correlate with higher concentrations of certain neonicotinoids. Of the various neonicotinoids, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin were found to pose the greatest risk to liver health.

Chemical Alterations in the Body from Glyphosate-Based Herbicide During Perinatal Exposure Induces Chronic Liver Injury     (Beyond Pesticides, October 13, 2022) Offspring’s exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) preceding and proceeding birth (perinatal) induces liver damage. A study published in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology demonstrates the role excess iron in the body from GBH exposure plays in liver toxicity via an increased uptake of calcium and oxidative stress.   To access how GBH exposure impacts offspring, researchers exposed pregnant Wistar rats to relevant doses of glyphosate in drinking water during the perinatal period, day five of gestation day until day 15 postpartum. During this period, GBH exposure increased calcium influx and iron accumulation in the offspring’s liver, resulting in oxidative stress and inflammation.   Therefore, the study concludes, “The GBH-induced oxidative stress in rat liver is associated with iron accumulation and may induce early epigenetic changes that could lead to adverse outcomes later in life. …   SNAP Comment: A rat's average gestation time is 21 to 23 days.

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Contribute to Liver Injury, including Toxic PFAS and Pesticides   (Beyond Pesticides, August 12, 2022) Gestational (during pregnancy) exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) like pesticides, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), among others, may increase pediatric (child) liver injury and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk, according to a study published in Environmental Health.   The study examined the effect of three organochlorine pesticides, four organophosphate pesticides, five polychlorinated biphenyls, two polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), three phenols, four parabens, ten phthalates, five PFAS, and nine metals on the liver.  The results confirm that all EDCs increase the odds of liver injury or liver cell apoptosis, except phthalates and phenols, due to high molecular weight.

Glyphosate and Roundup proven to disrupt gut microbiome by inhibiting shikimate pathway (GM Watch, 11 December 2019) 'The study found certain adverse effects at all doses tested, disproving regulators' assumptions that these levels have no adverse effects.' SNAP Comment: Note the huge variation in study dosage, based on regulatory acceptable levels. Clearly, glyphosate and Roundup are not 'safe' at levels considered acceptable daily intake or 'no adverse effects'. Interesting that in most pesticide studies there are liver and/or kidney effects. After all, these organs are two of the main detoxification organs in the body. The issue with our 'dose makes the poison' based regulatory system is that we then divide the dose causing problems by 1000 or something then assume it's OK at that level. This is clearly 'baloney'. 'However, proof that glyphosate herbicides can inhibit the EPSPS enzyme and the shikimate pathway in gut bacteria has been lacking. But a new study has proven beyond doubt that this does indeed happen. The study in rats has found that Roundup herbicide and its active ingredient glyphosate cause a dramatic increase in the levels of two substances, shikimic acid and 3-dehydroshikimic acid, in the gut, which are a direct indication that the EPSPS enzyme of the shikimic acid pathway has been severely inhibited. In addition, the researchers found that both Roundup and glyphosate affected the microbiome at all dose levels tested, causing shifts in bacterial populations. For the study, female rats (12 per group) were fed a daily dose of either glyphosate or a Roundup formulation approved in Europe, called MON 52276Glyphosate and Roundup were administered via drinking water to give a glyphosate daily intake of 0.5 mg, 50 mg and 175 mg/kg body weight per day (mg/kg bw/day), which respectively represent the EU acceptable daily intake (ADI), the EU no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), and the US NOAEL.' 'The study also revealed that Roundup, and to a lesser extent glyphosate, damaged the liver and kidneys of the rats, even over the relatively short study period of 90 days' .with little reflected in the blood biochemistry. 'Histopathological (microscopic) examination of the liver showed that the two higher doses of Roundup caused a statistically significant and dose-dependent increase in lesions, fatty liver disease changes, and necrosis (death of tissue). In contrast, none of the control animals showed the same liver effects.'

It's in the weeds: Herbicide linked to human liver disease   (University of California - San Diego, May 2019)    'The results, they found, were significant: Regardless of age, race, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity or diabetes status, glyphosate residue was significantly higher in patients with NASH  (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a type of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD),than it was in patients with a healthier liver... The findings, coupled with prior animal studies, said Mills, suggest a link between the use of commercial glyphosate in our food supply, which has increased significantly over the past 25 years, and the prevalence of NAFLD in the United States, which too has been on the rise for two decades.Mills plans to next put a group of patients on an all-organic diet and track them over the course of several months, examining how a herbicide-free diet might affect biomarkers of liver disease.'

Roundup Proven to Cause Liver Disease - Recall Must be Enacted (Moms Across America, Zen Honeycutt,  January 09, 2017)   January 9, 2016 a new study reveals that the weedkiller Roundup causes liver disease in rats after being exposed to doses lower than allowed by the EPA to be present on American food and feed crops. The story was published by Claire Robinson of GMWatch. According to the Liver Foundationat least 30 million people—or one in 10 Americans—now have some form of liver disease.study: Roundup causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease at very low doses