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Links between individual pesticides and cancer or pesticides and individual cancers

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also see glyphosatebody burdenneonicotinoidsrespiratorynervous systemkidneyFact Sheets/Organophosphateschildrenhazads of living near fieldsexposure to pesticideshuman rightsinsecticidesglyphosate 2

Mapping the key characteristics of carcinogens for glyphosate and its formulations: A systematic review  (Iemaan Rana et al, Chemosphere, 2023. The link goes to ScienceDirect for free access.) New scoping review strengthens glyphosate carcinogen connection claim.

Glyphosate Exposure and Urinary Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Agricultural Health Study   (Journal of the National Cancer Institute, djac242, https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djac242, January 2023)  Our findings contribute to the weight of evidence supporting an association between glyphosate exposure and oxidative stress in humans and may inform evaluations of the carcinogenic potential of this herbicide.

Estrogen-Mediated Cancers in Humans Have Links to Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides   ( focus on organochlorines)  (Beyond Pesticides, December 13, 2022)  Adding to the science, a review published in Environmental Exposure, Biomonitoring and Exposure Assessment highlights how specific estrogen-mimicking pesticides increase the risk of disease, particularly hormone-related cancers among women (i.e., breast, ovarian, endometrial cancer) and men (i.e., testicular, prostate cancer). Like pesticides, endocrine disruptors are xenobiotic (i.e., chemical substances foreign to an organism or ecosystem).   Pesticides are one of the most potent xeno-estrogenic compounds, as estrogenic strength and environmental half-life exceed those of other xeno-estrogenic compounds. Focusing on organochlorine pesticides (OCs), the study evaluates the chemical effects on the physiological (anatomic) system to increase cancer risk. Using human studies, researchers assessed how estrogen-medicated cancer develops in women and men. Various OCs, including aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, HCH, DDT, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, phenoxy acid herbicides, and methoxychlor, have associations with hormone-related cancers.    Despite the ban on many OCs across the globe, these chemicals remain in the environment. Many OCs can exist in the body for at least three to six years, in soil for decades, and in water for at least a century. Moreover, consumption of food and water resources contaminated with OCs can cause these chemicals to bioaccumulate in the body, resulting in the biomagnification of OCs.

filed under cancer/links and insecticides

Hormone Mimicking Properties of Glyphosate Weed Killer and Related Compounds Increase Breast Cancer Risk   (Beyond Pesticides, November 25, 2022) 'A study published in Chemosphere adds to the growing body of research demonstrating the endocrine (hormone) disrupting effects of glyphosate play in breast cancer development.    “The results obtained in this study are of toxicological relevance since they indicate thaglyphosate could be a potential endocrine disruptor in the mammalian system. Additionally, these findings suggest that glyphosate at high concentrations may have strong significance in tamoxifen resistance and breast cancer progression. Further studies in animal models must confirm these effects on organ systems.”

Kids and Kidney Cancer: Implication for Prenatal Pesticide Exposure    (Beyond Pesticides, November 10, 2022) A meta-analysis by the University Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada, adds to the plethora of research linking prenatal (before birth/during pregnancy) pesticide exposure to carcinogenic (cancer) tumor development. The analysis, published in Human & Experimental Toxicology, finds parental exposure to pesticides during the preconception (before pregnancy) or pregnancy period increases the risk of Wilms’ tumor (a type of kidney cancer) occurrence among children.    The report also examines occupational versus residential exposure and before-birth (prenatal) versus after-birth (postnatal) exposure. These results strengthen the finding that parental pesticide exposure before or during pregnancy correlates with increased risk for Wilms’ tumor in a child. The IRAC/WHO monographs support this conclusion and policies to stop specific pesticide use to prevent future cases of cancer. The study concludes, “Pesticide exposure in household/residential settings seems to contribute to Wilms’ tumor etiology. 

Breast Cancer Month: Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Breast Cancer Risk (Triple Negative Breast Cancer)  (Beyond Pesticides, October 27, 2022) A study published in Environment International adds to the growing body of research evaluating the association between neonicotinoid insecticides (neonics/NIs) and breast cancer... this study is one of the few to evaluate the toxicological and molecular mechanisms involved in initiating breast cancer events.  The study evaluates the activity of seven neonics on the GPER pathway using a calcium mobilization assay. The seven neonics include thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, and dinotefuran. Of the seven neonicsclothianidin, acetamiprid, and dinotefuran bind most strongly and activate GPER, thus indicating these chemicals induce breast cancer cell migration. Thus, GPER is a potential molecular target for the estrogenic disruption of neonicotinoids. Overall, the study demonstrates that neonics promote breast cancer progression through the GPER pathway at human-related exposure levels.   SNAP Comment: All are registered in Canada, except nitenpyram.

Pesticides plague Californians of color, new study shows ( Shannon Kelleher, The New Lede, 15 Sept. 2022)     'Ventura County (California) is known for its year-round production of roughly $2 billion worth of fruits and vegetables that feed people throughout the US and more than 70 other countries. Strawberries are the top crop, but workers also produce peppers, tomatoes, blueberries, avocados, and more.   The study found that 17.1 million pounds of pesticides, or an average of 5.7 million pounds per year, were sprayed in Ventura County from 2016 to 2018. The pesticides used included more than 60 types known to be carcinogenic and 74 types linked to endocrine disruption. Another 85 pesticides used in the county were linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity.   Notably, the study found that township sections where people of color were the majority had not just the most pesticide use, but also the most toxic pesticide use. More than half of the population in these areas was Latino or Hispanic. In contrast, areas that were relatively free of pesticides were overwhelmingly white communities.   “The strongest association we have seen between pesticide exposure during pregnancy and effects on children’s brains are with cognition, so like IQ and attention, ADHD,” said Gunier. “We have also looked at respiratory health, like asthma and lung function. For that, we actually see stronger associations with exposure during their childhood.”     As Harari began researching risk factors for advanced thyroid cancer at UCLA, she noticed that a lot of her referrals were coming from Bakersfield in Kern County– one of the top agricultural counties in the U.S. In a recent case-control study using thyroid cancer cases from the California Cancer Registry, Harari and colleagues found that 10 of the 29 pesticides they analyzed were associated with thyroid cancer.'

Parents’ Exposure to Pesticides Indicative of Childhood Cancer Risk among Offspring   (Beyond Pesticides, August 18, 2022) A study published in Environmental Research suggests occupational (work-related) exposure to pesticides among nonpregnant women and men may increase childhood cancer risk for offspring.    Although work-related maternal and paternal exposure to pesticides does not have an increased association with childhood cancer risk overall, exposure indicates a 42 percent higher risk of lymphoma (primarily Hodgkin lymphoma) and a 30 percent increased risk of solid non-CNS tumors in children. Additionally, paternal pesticide exposure can indicate a 15 percent risk for myeloid leukemia. The researchers detect that even low levels of pesticide exposure may lead to a higher risk of childhood cancers.

Study Adds to 40 Year Analysis Linking Brain Cancer to Pesticide Exposure  (Beyond Pesticides, September 23, 2021) 'A study by Claremont Graduate University finds exposure to agricultural pesticides increases brain cancer risk up to 20 percent. According to demographic information, white farmers have the highest rate of brain cancer. However, those managing livestock, where insecticides are widely used, have higher rates of brain cancer incidents than those managing crops.'

Glyphosate Profile (Carex CanadaCAREX Canada   PESTICIDES – PROBABLE CARCINOGEN (IARC 2A)  (CARcinogen EXposure) is a multi-institution team of researchers and specialists with expertise in epidemiology, risk assessment, toxicology, geographic information systems, and knowledge mobilization. The purpose of CAREX Canada is to provide a body of knowledge about Canadians’ exposures to known and suspected carcinogens, in order to support organizations in prioritizing exposures and in developing targeted exposure reduction policies and programs. IARC Monograph on Glyphosate

Living Within 2.5 Miles of Chemical Farming Increases Risk of Childhood Brain Tumors  (Beyond Pesticides, April 6, 2021) Pregnant women living within 2.5 miles of agricultural pesticide applications have an increased risk that their child will develop central nervous system (CNS) tumors, according to a study published in the journal Environmental Research by a team at University of California, Los Angeles. The results are particularly concerning as it reveals that individuals do not have to be in close contact with pesticides for risky, health-harming exposures to occur.    For astrocytoma tumors, the use of the pesticides bromacil, thiophanate-methyltriforine, and kresoxim-methyl increased risk of tumor development. Medulloblastoma was associated with the use of chlorothalonilpropiconazoledimethoate, and linuron. Development of ependymoma was linked to nearby use of thiophanate-methylIn sum, the pesticides chlorthalonilbromacilthiophanate-methyltriforinekresoxim-methyl, propiconazoledimethoate, and linuron were all linked to elevated rates of a CNS tumor. SNAP Comment: California is one of the only locations where such a study can be performed because they keep pesticide use data. In Saskatchewan, we don't even have pesticide sales data since 2003! The transition from farmland to residential is equally abrupt in SK.  As of 20 April 2021, the number of registered products of the pesticides quoted above are registered by the PMRA: Linuron 4 (herbicide) (annual weeds in crops); bromacil, 6 (herbicide); thiophanate-methyl,(fungicide) 13. included uses for seed potatoes ((not an extensive search of uses); Triforine,2 (fungicide) for blueberries, other berries and fruit);  kresoxim-methyl 2 (fungicide) for pear scab and powdery mildew; chlorothalonil,38 labels (fungicide) formarket gardens, corn and fruit, golf courses, ornamentals and aerial applications (not an extensive search of uses); propiconazole,65 labels (fungicide) turf, golf courses. Christmas tree plantations, crops, market gardens (not an extensive search of uses); dimethoate (Cygon) 6 labels (systemic insecticide) flowers, vegetables, field crops, ornamental trees (not an extensive search of uses)

Common Use Organophosphate Insecticides Pose a Greater Threat to Women’s Health   (Beyond Pesticides, March 18, 2021) A new study published in Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology finds chronic (long-term) organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure increases adverse health and cancer risk for U.S.women relative to men.   Study results demonstrate that non-smoking women with higher concentrations of OP metabolites are at greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, asthma, and total cancer, including breast cancer. OP exposure contributes most significantly to cardiovascular disease risk in women 60 to 85 years old. Increasing prescription drug use to treat pulmonary issues among women with higher OP concentrations indicates a relationship between exposure and health issues. Although breast cancer risk is highest among women overall, female smokers have a significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer in combination with OP exposure. Lastly, OP exposure among male smokers can increase rates of prostate cancer.

Study Finds Link Between Pesticide Exposure and Rare Blood Cancer Predecessor (MGUS) (Beyond Pesticide, January 14, 2021) Long-term exposure to permethrin and legacy organochlorine pesticides (aldrin, dieldrin, and lindane) increase the risk of developing monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a blood disease that likely precedes multiple myeloma (MM)—a type of blood cancer,    This study highlights the importance of understanding how pesticide use can increase the risk of latent diseases, which do not readily develop upon initial exposure. Study researchers state, “Our findings provide important insights regarding exposures to specific pesticides that may contribute to the excess of MM among farmers.      The presence of abnormal proteins (monoclonal M protein) in the blood within bone marrow is a characterization of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Although MGUS is benign (non-cancerous) and largely asymptomatic, it can be premalignant or a precursor for cancer development. Annually, one percent of individuals with MGUS will develop cancers like multiple myeloma, lymphoma, or amyloidosis. However, the cancer risk increases in people whose protein levels are abnormally high, which can occur upon repeated exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, like pesticides. Moreover, multiple myeloma is a rare type of blood cancer of the plasma cells, killing nearly 40 percent of 32,270 people it afflicts in the U.S. annually.

Literature Review: Pesticides Exposure Highly Correlated with Respiratory Diseases   (Beyond Pesticides, October 15, 2020) A review of scientific literature on the correlation between respiratory diseases and pesticides exposure—published in the journal Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine (AAEM), “Influence of pesticides on respiratory pathology—a literature review”—finds that exposure to pesticides increases incidents of respiratory pathologies (i.e., asthma, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD—or chronic bronchitis). Lung cancer has a positive association with the total number of days and intensity of pesticide exposure. Prolonged exposure (over 56 days) to the insecticide chlorpyrifos more than doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. The insecticide diazinon also shows a strong correlation between exposure and lung cancer incidences. Additionally, normal to high exposure to the herbicide metolachlor and high levels of exposure to the herbicide pendimethalin increase the risk of developing lung cancer. More than 109 days of carbofuran exposure, one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides, leads to a 3-fold increase in lung cancer incidences. Intensive exposure to the herbicide dicamba, even at low levels, increases lung cancer incidence. Occupational exposure to chlorophenol-related compound (a group of pesticides contaminated with the highly toxic chemical dioxin) during the manufacturing process has a strong association with lung cancer. Chemicals with a weak but a positive association with lung cancer are malathionatrazinecoumaphosS-ethyl-N, N-dipropylthiocarbamate, alachlor, trifluralin, and chlorothalonil.   Nonoccupational exposure to pesticides from residencies near pesticide processing plants, contact with pesticide-tainted clothes and tools, and household with improper storage and use of pesticides are at greater risk of respiratory illness, including asthma (ranking first) from chronic exposure, and upper and lower airway obstruction from acute exposure...Retailers are eight-fold more likely to experience respiratory distress than the general population, especially for retailers that sell manipulated organophosphorus compounds.   The connection between common and chronic respiratory diseases and exposure to pesticides continues to strengthen, despite efforts to restrict individual chemical exposure or mitigate chemical risks using risk assessment-based policy.

filed under respiratory and Cancer/ links....

Insecticide linked to testicular cancer with Latinos disproportionately affected  (Beyond Pesticides, October 14, 2020)   However, out of the 15 endocrine disrupting pesticides applied, 13 were sprayed in greater amounts near Hispanic individuals than non-Hispanic individuals. Acephate was found to have the strongest link to testicular cancer, and presented consistently elevated risks to Hispanic men. Mr. Swartz indicated to press that the findings could translate to acephate accounting for 5-10% of testicular cancers among California’s Hispanic population.

Study Finds an Association between Dicamba Use and Increased Risk of Developing Various Cancers   (Beyond Pesticides, May 21, 2020) 'Use of the herbicide dicamba increases humans’ risk of various acute and chronic cancers, according to research published in the International Journal of Epidemiology by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Over half (52.9%) of all pesticide applicators in the study use dicamba. Participants reporting dicamba use are at elevated risk of developing liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia at the highest exposure level. Additionally, dicamba exposure risks are associated with liver cancer and acute myeloid leukemia linger, as much as 20-years after chemical exposure.   Commercial dicamba use is widespread throughout the U.S., with research findings linking the chemical to neurotoxicity, kidney/liver damage, sensitization/irritation, birth/developmental defects, reproductive damage, and respiratory illnesses. The AHS analysis also associates dicamba use with colon and lung cancer. In addition to human health effects, studies find that dicamba adversely impacts ecological health, causing harm to birds; insects; fish; aquatic organisms; non-target plants; and pollinators, like beetles. Not only do laboratory studies indicate that dicamba alters animal liver function to promote tumor growth and cancer, but they also find that it induces oxidative stress and DNA mutations—all of which are conduits acknowledged to cause cancer. Lastly, extensive dicamba use can induce antibiotic resistance in human pathogens like Escherichia coli and Salmonella eterica. Despite dicamba’s various adverse health associations, it remains available for commercial use in agricultural and non-agricultural settings alike.

Household Pesticide Use During Pregnancy Linked to Nephroblastoma Kidney Cancer  (Beyond Pesticides, April 15, 2020)  ' Wilms’ tumor is one of the most common childhood cancers but has an inscrutable etiology. This study adds weight to the theory that pesticides are a driver of the tumor’s development, as pesticide use was more strongly associated than other widely investigated causes, including parental smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy.  {U)se of any pesticides during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of disease development. Families whose children developed nephroblastoma reported higher rates of pesticide use than control families (52% to 40%). While any pesticide use was associated with a higher risk, insecticides, particularly use of combinations of insecticides and other pesticides, showed stronger associations. The strongest link between Wilms’ tumor and environmental exposure was parental use of pesticides within three months of pregnancy.'

Chemical-Intensive Agriculture Increases Pregnant Mother’s Risk of Her Child Developing Leukemia   (Beyond Pesticides, March 3, 2020)      'The findings are based on a review of pesticide use data in rural, agricultural areas of California, where many minority, low-income and farmworking communities live. Under current laws, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) permits the use of cancer-causing pesticides with an expectation that a certain number of cancers (anywhere from 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 1,000,000, based on the pesticide in question) should be considered ‘acceptable risk.’    "A statistical analysis conducted by researchers found that use of any carcinogenic pesticides within 4,000m (~2.5 miles)" (or 4 km for Canadians) "during a mother’s pregnancy increases the odds of the child developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia nearly two-fold and three-fold, respectively. Urea-based herbicides, such as diuron and linuron, are found to be particularly troubling, substantially increasing the risk of childhood cancer.    Scientists also considered the cancer connection for several pesticides not considered carcinogenic by EPA, but widely used in California. Among those, glyphosate and and paraquat dichloride were both found to increase the risk of leukemia.'

Glyphosate can trigger aggressive breast cancer when combined with another risk factor (GM Watch,  01 October 2019) 'The new study shows that a very low concentration of glyphosate (in the parts per trillion range and thus environmentally relevant for everyone) can trigger breast cancer when combined with another risk factor. ...  Normally when the DNA of a gene is tagged by methylation, it is not expressed. When the methylation tags are removed, the gene can be reactivated. Such changes in gene function caused by alterations in the profile of DNA methylation tags are known to be a contributing factor to cancer formation (carcinogenesis)... This appears to have been the case in this study, as when a second cancer-inducing agent was combined with the glyphosate, this led to the transformation of the human breast cells to a cancerous state...   The second cancer-inducing agent was a class of small RNA molecules known as microRNA, which are involved in the regulation of gene expression...micro-RNA182-5p is a naturally occurring gene regulatory molecule that is present in everyone. Dysfunction of microRNA182-5p has been linked with cancers of different types....She (Sophie Lelievre) said, “What was particularly alarming about the tumour growth was that it wasn’t the usual type of breast cancer we see in older women. It was the more aggressive form found in younger women, also known as luminal B cancer.”

Kids Carry Higher Levels of Glyphosate in Their Bodies than Adults, Study Finds  (Beyond Pesticides, August 7, 2019) significantly higher. '...recent data from the American Cancer Society (ACS) indicat)es) that pediatric cancer in the U.S. surged by almost 50% from 1975 to 2015... Results showed that over 90% of participants had been recently exposed to glyphosate. In most child/parent pairs, the child’s body had surprisingly higher concentrations of glyphosate (up to 4 times that of the parent), supporting research that glyphosate poses a greater threat to children. While the American Cancer society (ACS) is for the most part silent on the impact of pesticides on childhood cancer, the Canadian Cancer Society (CCS) recognizes these risks. (links)

U.S. federal agency shows that glyphosate causes cancer (Prevent Cancer Now, 9 June 2019)   SNAP comment: Nice comparative charts. Simple, easy to understand comparison of independent glyphosate assessments versus regulatory (PMRAEPA). When you see the chart, Bayer/Monsanto's argument implying glyphosate's safety because neither the EPA or PMRA has banned it doesn't hold water. It is merely a distraction from the facts.   'The federal U.S. public health agency that assesses toxic exposures showed scientifically that glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) such as Roundup cause cancer in humans. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR) did not, however, say that GBHs cause cancer. Independent scientists do say so. See for yourself, some of the data that scientists and lawyers are using to prove that glyphosate causes cancer, while regulators fail to acknowledge health risks.'

Another Study Links Glyphosate to Cancer  also a link to study. (Beyond Pesticides, March 26, 2019) 'In a study investigating the carcinogenic effects of pesticide exposure by analyzing data on 316,270 farmers and farmworkers in the U.S., Norway, and France, researchers have identified elevated risk for non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and some subtypes, linking glyphosate and large B-cell lymphoma. Other pesticides linked to the disease include the pyrethroid deltamethrin and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma; and terbufos and NHL overall.'  'For this research, chemical groups and active ingredients were selected based on common use in at least two of the three countries. In addition, researchers gave priority to chemical groups and active ingredients for which some associative evidence with lympho-hematological malignancies has already been established, and to active ingredients not previously investigated in epidemiological studies. Glyphosate and dicamba were included in the study, as well as these categorical compounds: four insecticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, and pyrethroids); seven herbicides (phenyl ureas, chloroacetanilides, dinitroanilines, phenoxys, thiocarbamates, triazines, and triazinones); two fungicides (dithiocarbamates and phthalimides); and arsenical compounds.

Bee-Toxic Neonicotinoid Insecticide Exposure Linked to Hormone-Dependent Breast Cancer  (Beyond Pesticides, March 7, 2019)  'environmental concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticides thiacloprid and imidacloprid increase expression of a gene linked to hormone-dependent breast cancer.'  SNAP Comment: Let's also remember that neonicotinoids were conditionally registered, i.e. registered prior to all the mandated tests submitted. In any case, it is likely that the test used in this study is part of the mandated tests as the list dates from 1984.

Study Confirms Findings on Carcinogenic Glyphosate, Suggests “Compelling Link”  (Beyond Pesticides, February 28, 2019)   Statistical analysis revealed there to be a 41% increased risk of NHL resulting from high exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides. To compare and add weight to their results, researchers also conducted a second statistical analysis using older (2005) AHS data, which surprisingly revealed a higher, 45% risk.

DDT Exposure During Early Life Associated with Increased Risk of Breast Cancer  (Beyond Pesticides, February 20, 2019)   'Women exposed to DDT during ‘early windows of susceptibility’ in their childhood are at increased risk of developing breast cancer, according to new research published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute..These studies, and the predictable lag time between exposure, health impacts, and epidemiological data on those impacts should lead lawmakers and regulators to consider taking a more precautionary approach to the introduction of these chemicals into the environment.'

Dr. Wozniak: Roundup Damages DNA in Human Blood Cells at Low Concentrations (publishd in Food and Chemical Toxicology, July 2018) with link to original article. DNA damage induced by glyphosate and its derivatives increased in order: AMPA, glyphosate, Roundup 360 PLUS. AMPA is the degradation product of glyphosate. The formulation Roundup 360 PLUS was toxic at 50 times lower concentration than glyphosate alone. For regulatory purposes, a pesticide is tested by itself, never as a formulation. Acceptable levels are also based on single pesticide testing, and not on its increased toxicity in formulation. 

Neonicotinoids may alter estrogen production in humans (INRS,April 26, 2018,/ by Stéphanie Thibault)   An INRS team publishes the first-ever in vitro study demonstrating the potential effects of these pesticides on human health in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. The results of the study show an increase in aromatase expression and a unique change in the pattern in which aromatase was expressed, which is similar to that observed in the development of certain breast cancers. (also filed under neonicotinoids)

Harvard Meta-Analysis Ties Childhood Cancer to Pesticide Use (Beyond Pesticides, September 15, 2015) A study released this week in the journal Pediatrics finds that children’s exposure to pesticides in and around the home results in an increased risk of developing certain childhood cancers... For example, while residential herbicide use was associated with an increased risk of leukemia, the link between outdoor insecticide use and childhood cancers was not found to be statistically significant. However, exposure to insecticides inside the home was significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood leukemia and lymphoma.

Popular weedkiller may cause cancer, World Health Organization agency says Ariana Eunjung Cha / The Washington Post, 6 July 2015. 2,4-D, sprayed widely on farms and used in a number of popular lawn-care products has been designated as "possibly" carcinogenic to humans by a World Health Organization research arm. 2,4,5-T was the main part of Agent Orange containing a lot of dioxins and has been banned for a while. but 2,4-D contains dioxins too. However, they are not the kind companies have to report on, so are not regularly measured. More on 2,4-D and dioxins under registration and re-evaluation.

Media and NGO comments on WHO classification of glyphosate as probable carcinogen (GM Watch. 02 April 2015). However, unless the EPA reforms its evaluation processes, it will not take the WHO report (GM Watch,March 20, 2015) into serious consideration.

Read more: http://www.motherearthnews.com/nature-and-environment/brain-tumors-in-children-caused-by-pesticide-exposure-zb0z1305zroc.aspx#ixzz3KOkuP8DT

Review Links Glyphosate to non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (Beyond Pesticides, May 2, 2014 The study represents one of the most comprehensive reviews on the topic of occupational exposure to pesticides in scientific literature, demonstrating their clear harm to human health. In addition to linking glyphosate to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the researchers also found that carbamate insecticides, organophosphate insecticides, phenoxy herbicide MCPA, and lindane were positively associated with NHL cancer.

Triclosan Linked to the Growth of Breast Cancer Cells (Beyond Pesticides, April, 29, 2014) as well as octylphenolTriclosan is an antibacterial and antifungal agent found in numerous commonly known household products. Octylphenol is a commercial solvent that can be found in paints and plastics, and is often used as an inert ingredient in pesticide formulations in the U.S, but not listed in Canada (List of Formulants 2010). Both chemicals are also endocrine-disrupting.

Controversial New Study Reports GM Corn Can Cause Cancer

SKIN- Pesticide use and cutaneous melanoma in pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Heath Study Significant associations were seen between cutaneous melanoma and maneb/mancozeb, parathion, and carbaryl. Other associations with benomyl and ever use of arsenical pesticides were also suggested. (June 2010)

Residential Pesticide Exposure Blamed for Children Brain Cancers 2009

Crop herbicide imazethapyr may cause bladder and colon cancer 2009

Breast Cancer (Julia Brody, PhD from the Silent Spring Institute.(2012 Beyond Pesticides Forum: Pesticides & Health Panel, pt. 3) video

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Linked to Herbicides in Two New Studies 2008

Links (2) between individual pesticides and cancer or pesticides and individual cancers

view details »

see also Filed under glyphosate p.2DNA damage

Loss of Chromosome Y in Male Farmers Genotoxic Implications for Cancer    (Beyond Pesticides, January 3, 2024) A study published in Environmental Health Perspectives finds elevated, chronic exposure to glyphosate throughout one’s lifetime increases the risk of mosaic loss of chromosome Y (loss of chromosome Y occurs to many men in some cells due to aging mLOY) that impacts a noticeable fraction of cells... the risk of mLOY is a biomarker for genotoxicity (the damage of genetic information within a cell causing mutations from chemical exposure, which may lead to cancer) and expansion of cellular response to glyphosate, resulting in the precursor for hematological (blood) cancers. This study is one of the first to identify sex-specific chromosome degradation, with stark evidence demonstrating links to various cancers, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma.   The results find that mLOY is detectable in 21.4 percent of farmers, with mLOY expanding throughout most cells in 9.8 percent of farmers. Most farmers with mLOY expanding throughout most cells are older in age, with a greater lifetime exposure and intensity of exposure to glyphosate. However, these individuals are non-smokers and non-obese, which are other risk factors for mLOY.

With Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer on the Rise, the Science Points to an Association with Pesticides   (Beyond Pesticides, December 13, 2023)    A study published in Environmental Health finds occupational (work-related) exposure to pesticides increases the risk of endometrial (uterine) cancer development...  Using a questionnaire and job-exposure matrix (JEM) in the Screenwide case-control study, the study analyzed the association between occupational exposure to pesticides and endometrial cancer. The data includes 174 consecutive incidents of endometrial cancer cases and 216 controls of the individuals occupationally exposed to pesticides, whether fungicides, herbicides, or insecticides; there is a positive association with endometrial cancer. Although past exposure shows a higher occurrence of endometrial cancer, this can be explained through the latency (delayed) development of cancer, as the illness is primarily chronic. As for occupation, agricultural jobs have a higher association with cancer prognosis than custodial jobs (e.g., disinfectants).'

All Pesticide Classes Increase the Risk of Central Nervous System Tumors in Children    (Beyond Pesticides, September 21, 2023) A literature review published in Ciência & Saúde Coletiva finds environmental exposure to all classes of pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, insecticides) has an association with childhood astrocytoma (brain/central nervous system CNS tumor). CNS tumors represent half of all malignant neoplasms (tumors) in children. ...Furthermore, childhood cancer survivors can suffer from chronic or long-term health complications that may be life-threatening. ... Most notably, exposure to pesticides in the home represents the most typical type of exposure setting. This is concerning as most of one’s lifetime is spent in the home. 

also see fact sheets/glyphosate and endocrine disruptionchildren

While the American Cancer society (ACS) is for the most part silent on the impact of pesticides on childhood cancer, the Canadian Cancer Society (CCS) recognizes these risks. (links) However, recent enquiries to the CCS in Regina indicates that there is no longer any staff or money allocated for pesticide work. (July 2019)

Pesticides Linked to Adult and Childhood Cancer in Western U.S., with Incidence Varying by County    (Beyond Pesticides, June 28, 2022)   For the first study, researchers took the top 25 most used pesticides identified by EPA estimates, and cross-referenced them with USGS data to determine the amount of each pesticide used by state and county. These data were then modeled against NCI county-level cancer incidence.  At the state level, an association is found between the total amount of all pesticides evaluated and both overall and pediatric cancer incidence. Delving deeper into specific pesticide types, a strong connection is found between the amount of fumigants applied in each state and the rate of pediatric cancers. Specifically, the fumigant pesticide metam sodium has a strong connection between its higher use and total cancer rate.   2nd study: The same 25 pesticides as the first study were reviewed, but researchers also included other environmental toxins like heavy metals, and nitrate/nitrites. These data are consolidated into an Environmental Burden Index (EBI), and overall environmental contamination within each county is subsequently deemed as either low, medium, or high on the EBI. Idaho counties with high scores on the EBI have higher rates of childhood cancer. As the study further notes, “The variables predominantly contributing to the environmental burden index were pesticides.” Like the first study, a model created by the researchers using these available data was able to accurately predict pediatric cancer incidence currently occurring in Idaho counties.

EPA Overlooks Glyphosate and Roundup Ingredients’ Cancer, DNA Damage, and Multigenerational Effects  (Beyond Pesticides, March 10, 2022) 'Glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) like Roundup® induce DNA damage and alter biological mechanisms (gene regulatory microRNAs miRNAs or miRs) associated with cancer development. According to the study published in Toxicological SciencesDNA damage mainly occurs through oxidative stress from GBH exposure. Moreover, DNA damage and other biological mechanisms that cause carcinogenicity (cancer) occur at doses assumed “safe” by pesticide regulators such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).   These findings show that glyphosate and Roundup score positive in various tests of carcinogenicity... in a living animal (rat) that is accepted as a surrogate for human health effects. In my view, this strengthens the argument that exposure to Roundup herbicides can lead to the type of cancer suffered by the plaintiffs in many of the court cases – non-Hodgkin lymphoma... For the first time, this study demonstrates epigenetic changes in DNA, proteins, and small RNA profiles in the liver of organisms exposed to glyphosate and Roundup formula MON 52276.

filed under glyphosate and cancer

Cancer rates are higher, closer to golf courses and other sources of carcinogens, in Newfoundland. Additional burden of cancers due to environmental carcinogens in Newfoundland and Labrador: a spatial analysis  (Rahman et al, Environmental Health Review, 13 November 2020)  For ultraviolet rays , arsenic, disinfection by-products , and agricultural chemicals, the RR (95% CI) were 1.5 (1.4–1.6), 1.25 (1.03–1.51), 1.8 (1.67–1.94), and 1.49 (1.3–1.7), respectively.' 'Agricultural chemicals are heavily used on golf courses, with four to seven times greater than the recommended doses meant for any agricultural farms (Feldman, 2020; Golf ventures, 2019).'

45 Different Cancers Associated with Work-Related Pesticide

Exposure    (Beyond Pesticide, November 4, 2021) 'A scientific literature analysis by the Federal University of Goias, Brazil, finds occupational (work-related) exposure to agricultural pesticides increases the risk for 45 different types of cancer.   The present study investigated the association between cancer incidences and work-related pesticide exposure using scientific literature from the Scopus® database between January 2011 and December 2020.The database contains scientific literature from over 20 nations, including the U.S., France, Brazil, and India. Furthermore, researchers note pesticide use increased during this decade, along with the number of acute pesticide poisonings among farmworkers and the general public. The analysis finds an association between pesticides (i.e., insecticides, herbicides, fungicides) and 45 different cancers. Multiple myeloma (plasma cell cancer), bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and prostate cancer are the most prevalent forms of cancer. Among the evaluated studies, the U.S. has the most cancer incidents.'

Women in Agricultural Work at Increased Risk for Skin and Blood Cancers from Pesticide Exposure   (Beyond Pesticides, October 21, 2021) A study published in Environment International finds higher rates of various cancers among agricultural workers, with multiple myeloma (blood cancer) and melanoma (skin cancer) disproportionately impacting female farmers.. In addition, the study finds elevated rates of prostate cancer among men compared to the general population... Moreover, recent studies find an association between the blood disease monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and pesticide exposure. MGUS is a likely precursor for MM (mulriple myeloma) development, where risk increases in people whose MGUS protein levels are abnormally high.'

Increase Breast Cancer Risk Through Hormone (Endocrine) Disruption    (Beyond Pesticides, July 29, 2021) New research published in Environmental Health Perspectives finds nearly 300 different chemicals in pesticides, consumer products, and contaminated resources (i.e., food, water) increase breast cancer risks. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, causing the second most cancer-related deaths in the United States...The study results find 296 chemicals associated with an increase in estradiol or progesterone. 182 and 185 different chemicals cause an increase in estradiol and progesterone, respectively, while 71 chemicals are responsible for the increased synthesis of both hormones.  

Pesticide Use Linked to Increased Risk of Lung Cancer     (Beyond Pesticides, July 23, 2020) Chronic pesticide use, and subsequent exposure, elevate a person’s risk of developing lung cancer.     'Individual pesticides exhibiting a significant correlation with lung cancer are chlorpyrifos, as well as legacy pesticides carbofuran and dieldrin. Lastly, researchers categorized the number of cumulative pesticide exposure days into quartiles (Q1-Q4), with Q1 being the lowest exposure and Q4 the highest. Researchers placed participants who used pesticides for less than 160 days in Q1 and participants who used pesticides for more than 530 days in Q4. According to the study, the use of pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides have a positive association with lung cancer development, with Q4 exposure participants displaying elevated risk of lung cancer compared to Q1 exposure participants.    Although exposure to insecticides and herbicides increases the risk of developing lung cancer for participants in Q2 through Q4, only Q4 exposure (the highest exposure level) significantly increases the risk of lung cancer for fungicide use. From a research perspective, the higher exposure effects for Q2 through Q4 are a function of high acute toxicity for insecticides and herbicides.'

Rate of Male Breast Cancer on the Rise in Scotland, Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Suspected   (Beyond Pesticides, January 29, 2020) A study of male breast cancer (MBC) in Scotland reports an alarming, increasing trend of this rare disease – especially in agricultural areas. While only accounting for 1% of diagnosed breast cancer, MBC forms in the breast tissue of men and is often fatal because of delayed diagnosis and lack of research on male-specific treatment.  Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can, even at low exposure levels, disrupt normal hormonal (endocrine) function. EDCs include many pesticides, exposures to which have been linked to infertility and other reproductive disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and early puberty, as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and childhood and adult cancers.  EDCs represent an under-researched and under-regulated threat to human healthBeyond Pesticides wrote on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s stalled analysis of the risk these chemicals pose, “A persistent critique of EPA’s toxicological assumptions has to do with the “dose makes the poison” concept that underlies conventional toxicology. In fact, researchers have discovered that this concept—that the more exposure, the more extreme the impacts—is not consistently the case across exposures to chemical compounds such as pesticides. Additionally, even very low-level exposures (aka “doses”) can, in some instances, cause more extreme health impacts.”     A 2017 European study shows that costs of disease burden and health care related to chemical environmental exposures, writ large, may constitute a figure somewhere north of 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP).

Increased Risk of Skin Cancer Tied to Use of Weed Killers, as Researchers Call for a Precautionary Standard   (Beyond Pesticides, November 5, 2019)   'Herbicide use is associated with an increased risk of developing cutaneous melanoma, a skin cancer, according to a meta-analysis published last month in the Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. For those working on farms and in other occupations with frequent exposure to herbicides, the risk is another in a long list of pesticide-induced diseases. Ultimately, researchers suggest, “A precautionary public health safety policy that includes preventive individual counselling and surveillance to workers exposed to pesticides may be advisable.”    Herbicide exposure is linked to a long list of health effects, which are documented in Beyond Pesticides Pesticide- Induced Diseases Database.'

U.S. Health Agency Concurs with International Findings Linking Weed Killer Glyphosate to Cancer, while Inspector General Investigates Misconduct at EPA   (Beyond Pesticides, April 23, 2019)   'But despite the attempts of an apparently corrupt EPA official, earlier this month DHHS’ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) released its first draft on the Toxicological Profile for Glyphosate. Top-line findings appear consistent with conclusions made by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) on the carcinogenicity of glyphosate...However, the studies and references analyzed in the report indicate clearly there is strong link between glyphosate and cancer. Of particular note are the three meta-analyses of epidemiological studies reviewed by ATSDR: Schinasi and Leon (2014), Chang and Delzell (2016), and the IARC monograph, which all found “positive associations” between glyphosate exposure and cancer. The Chang and Delzell (2016) study, funded in part by Monsanto itself, downplays in its abstract conclusions that in fact line up closely to the other meta-studies.'

Filmmaker & Former Groundskeeper Who Sued Monsanto & Won To Premiere Film “Ground War”  (Beyond Pesticides, April 2, 2019) The new documentary film “Ground War” will have its New York City premiere screening on Saturday, April 6, 2019, 7:30pm at Florence Gould Hall, 55 East 59th Street, New York, NY. The film is a moving depiction of a son’s quest for answers about the cause of his father’s cancer—which takes him into the world of doctors, scientists, pesticide regulators, victims of pesticide poisoning, activists, and land managers.

Exposure to Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis and Supporting Evidence (Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, Available online 10 February 2019)  'Overall, in accordance with evidence from experimental animal and mechanistic studies, our current meta-analysis of human epidemiological studies suggests a compelling link between exposures to GBHs and increased risk for NHL.'

Association of Frequency of Organic Food Consumption With Cancer RiskFindings From the NutriNet-Santé Prospective Cohort Study (JAMA Internal Medicine, October 22, 2018)  High organic food scores were inversely associated with the overall risk of cancer (hazard ratio for quartile 4 vs quartile 1, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.88; P for trend = .001; absolute risk reduction, 0.6%; hazard ratio for a 5-point increase, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.96). also filed under organics/health

Brazilian Researchers Link Rise in Colon Cancer to Increase in Pesticide Use  (Beyond Pesticides, November 7, 2018)  'The researchers link the rise in the country's pesticide use since the turn of the century to significant increases in colon cancer, particularly in the country's most intensive agricultural southern regions...Researchers note that as Brazil's agriculture industry has grown over the last two decades, it has become the world's leading consumer of pesticides. In the year 2000, roughly 160 million tons of pesticides were used in the country. By 2012, that number reached nearly 500 million tons. Scientists compared pesticides sold to standard mortality rates (SMR) in each Brazilian state. SMR measures mortality by comparing observed mortality to expected mortality when adjusting for age and gender. A rate above one indicates that there is excessive mortality. Despite improvements in detection and treatment, colon cancer deaths recorded in the country increased from roughly 950k in 2000 to over one million by 2012. Using a series of statistical models, researchers showed that as the amount of pesticide sold in the country increased, the SMR for colon cancer increased in close correlation. This trend held for both male and female populations.'

EWG is rethinking cancer prevention (April 2016) Traditional initiatives that aim to prevent cancer have largely ignored the role of toxic substances in the environment. EWG wants to change that with new investigations on environmental causes of cancer. We will inform and empower you with tips and tools to help stop cancer before it starts. Check their site for their blog, research, resources, headlines and 'ask an expert' on cancer prevention.

Agricultural Crop Density Linked to Childhood Cancer in Midwest (Beyond Pesticides, October 16, 2015) According to a new study, living in crop-dense regions is linked to increased leukemia and central nervous system cancers in children. Although there is a litany of scientific literature that highlights the link between pesticide exposure and childhood illness, this study is one of few that examines the relationship between residential exposures to agricultural pesticides via crop density and adverse health outcomes, and may serve as a basis for further investigation into childhood cancer rates in areas where agricultural pesticides are highly used. The study, titled Agricultural crop density and the risk of childhood cancer in the Midwestern United States: an ecologic study, was published in the journal Environmental Health.

Exploring the Connection: A State of the Science Conference on Pesticides and Cancer,

Canadian Cancer Society   Conference Presentations (Nov. 12,13, 2008)

President’s Cancer Panel Says Burden of Environmentally Induced Cancer Greatly Underestimated  (Beyond Pesticides, May 11, 2010. Posted in Agriculture, Cancer, Chemicals, Disease/Health Effects, Farmworkers)The Panel’s report: Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk: What We Can Do Now. "Part Two of the report focuses on sources and types of environmental contaminants, and its second chapter focuses specifically on agricultural sources of exposure... Approximately 40 chemicals classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as known, probable, or possible human carcinogens, are used in EPA-registered pesticides now on the market.” The Panel notes that the pesticide tolerances, the allowable limit on food, have been criticized by environmentalists as being inadequate and unduly influenced by industry." " In addition, the report finds that health care providers often fail to consider occupational and environmental factors when diagnosing patient illness."

April 2009   BC Health and Environmental Powerhouses Call for Cosmetic Pesticide Ban as Election Campaign Ramps Up

SK Residents support pesticide bylaws. ‘Nearly 7 out of 10 Saskatchewan residents (69%) believe that pesticides pose a threat totheir health and would support a law phasing out pesticides used to beautify lawns and gardens.’ says a Canadian Cancer Society-SK (CCS-SK) sponsored Ipsos Reid poll. CCS-Sk report on environmental carcinogens in Saskatchewan deals specifically with tobacco, second hand smoke, cosmetic use of pesticides and community right to know, and product labeling. (2008)

Group wants to weed out pesticide use in Sask (SNAP) Regina Leader Post article (June 2007) 

Environmental Carcinogens. Report of the CCS-SK. Chapter 4 presents CCS-SK position on pesticides.

Canadian Cancer Statistics from the Canadian Cancer Society. Browse the news on the right side or search 'Cancer statistics'

Cancer Smart 3.1 Consumer Guide from the Labour Environmental Alliance Society, Vancouver B.C. www.leas.ca/ (2011) Pesticides are covered in one whole chapter plus in the chapter on foods.

Cancer society says its research supports ban on cosmetic pesticide use.

Identifying agents of cancer  statement from the Canadian Cancer Society: "We agree with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) that about 80 per cent of cancers are linked to environmental factors such as exposure to chemicals at home and in the workplace, as well as tobacco smoke, obesity, smoking and inactivity ".

Report on Carcinogens. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/?objectid=03C9B512-ACF8-C1F3-ADBA53CAE848F635  Prevent Cancer Now. Spring 2012  from article above)

The United States’ bi-annual Report on Carcinogens, a product of the National Toxicology Program, provides a list of all substances which are known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens... Product manufacturers are now using the GreenScreen™ to ensure that the hazardous materials they eliminate will indeed be replaced by known safer alternatives.