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Links between individual pesticides and cancer or pesticides and individual cancers

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also see glyphosatebody burden and neonicotinoids

Chemical-Intensive Agriculture Increases Pregnant Mother’s Risk of Her Child Developing Leukemia   (Beyond Pesticides, March 3, 2020)      'The findings are based on a review of pesticide use data in rural, agricultural areas of California, where many minority, low-income and farmworking communities live. Under current laws, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) permits the use of cancer-causing pesticides with an expectation that a certain number of cancers (anywhere from 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 1,000,000, based on the pesticide in question) should be considered ‘acceptable risk.’    "A statistical analysis conducted by researchers found that use of any carcinogenic pesticides within 4,000m (~2.5 miles)" (or 4 km for Canadians) "during a mother’s pregnancy increases the odds of the child developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia nearly two-fold and three-fold, respectively. Urea-based herbicides, such as diuron and linuron, are found to be particularly troubling, substantially increasing the risk of childhood cancer.    Scientists also considered the cancer connection for several pesticides not considered carcinogenic by EPA, but widely used in California. Among those, glyphosate and and paraquat dichloride were both found to increase the risk of leukemia.'

Glyphosate can trigger aggressive breast cancer when combined with another risk factor (GM Watch,  01 October 2019) 'The new study shows that a very low concentration of glyphosate (in the parts per trillion range and thus environmentally relevant for everyone) can trigger breast cancer when combined with another risk factor. ...  Normally when the DNA of a gene is tagged by methylation, it is not expressed. When the methylation tags are removed, the gene can be reactivated. Such changes in gene function caused by alterations in the profile of DNA methylation tags are known to be a contributing factor to cancer formation (carcinogenesis)... This appears to have been the case in this study, as when a second cancer-inducing agent was combined with the glyphosate, this led to the transformation of the human breast cells to a cancerous state...   The second cancer-inducing agent was a class of small RNA molecules known as microRNA, which are involved in the regulation of gene expression...micro-RNA182-5p is a naturally occurring gene regulatory molecule that is present in everyone. Dysfunction of microRNA182-5p has been linked with cancers of different types....She (Sophie Lelievre) said, “What was particularly alarming about the tumour growth was that it wasn’t the usual type of breast cancer we see in older women. It was the more aggressive form found in younger women, also known as luminal B cancer.”

Kids Carry Higher Levels of Glyphosate in Their Bodies than Adults, Study Finds  (Beyond Pesticides, August 7, 2019) significantly higher. '...recent data from the American Cancer Society (ACS) indicat)es) that pediatric cancer in the U.S. surged by almost 50% from 1975 to 2015... Results showed that over 90% of participants had been recently exposed to glyphosate. In most child/parent pairs, the child’s body had surprisingly higher concentrations of glyphosate (up to 4 times that of the parent), supporting research that glyphosate poses a greater threat to children. While the American Cancer society (ACS) is for the most part silent on the impact of pesticides on childhood cancer, the Canadian Cancer Society (CCS) recognizes these risks. (links)

U.S. federal agency shows that glyphosate causes cancer (Prevent Cancer Now, 9 June 2019)   SNAP comment: Nice comparative charts. Simple, easy to understand comparison of independent glyphosate assessments versus regulatory (PMRAEPA). When you see the chart, Bayer/Monsanto's argument implying glyphosate's safety because neither the EPA or PMRA has banned it doesn't hold water. It is merely a distraction from the facts.   'The federal U.S. public health agency that assesses toxic exposures showed scientifically that glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) such as Roundup cause cancer in humans. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR) did not, however, say that GBHs cause cancer. Independent scientists do say so. See for yourself, some of the data that scientists and lawyers are using to prove that glyphosate causes cancer, while regulators fail to acknowledge health risks.'

Another Study Links Glyphosate to Cancer  also a link to study. (Beyond Pesticides, March 26, 2019) 'In a study investigating the carcinogenic effects of pesticide exposure by analyzing data on 316,270 farmers and farmworkers in the U.S., Norway, and France, researchers have identified elevated risk for non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and some subtypes, linking glyphosate and large B-cell lymphoma. Other pesticides linked to the disease include the pyrethroid deltamethrin and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma; and terbufos and NHL overall.'  'For this research, chemical groups and active ingredients were selected based on common use in at least two of the three countries. In addition, researchers gave priority to chemical groups and active ingredients for which some associative evidence with lympho-hematological malignancies has already been established, and to active ingredients not previously investigated in epidemiological studies. Glyphosate and dicamba were included in the study, as well as these categorical compounds: four insecticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, and pyrethroids); seven herbicides (phenyl ureas, chloroacetanilides, dinitroanilines, phenoxys, thiocarbamates, triazines, and triazinones); two fungicides (dithiocarbamates and phthalimides); and arsenical compounds.

Bee-Toxic Neonicotinoid Insecticide Exposure Linked to Hormone-Dependent Breast Cancer  (Beyond Pesticides, March 7, 2019)  'environmental concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticides thiacloprid and imidacloprid increase expression of a gene linked to hormone-dependent breast cancer.'  SNAP Comment: Let's also remember that neonicotinoids were conditionally registered, i.e. registered prior to all the mandated tests submitted. In any case, it is likely that the test used in this study is part of the mandated tests as the list dates from 1984.

Study Confirms Findings on Carcinogenic Glyphosate, Suggests “Compelling Link”  (Beyond Pesticides, February 28, 2019)   Statistical analysis revealed there to be a 41% increased risk of NHL resulting from high exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides. To compare and add weight to their results, researchers also conducted a second statistical analysis using older (2005) AHS data, which surprisingly revealed a higher, 45% risk.

DDT Exposure During Early Life Associated with Increased Risk of Breast Cancer  (Beyond Pesticides, February 20, 2019)   'Women exposed to DDT during ‘early windows of susceptibility’ in their childhood are at increased risk of developing breast cancer, according to new research published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute..These studies, and the predictable lag time between exposure, health impacts, and epidemiological data on those impacts should lead lawmakers and regulators to consider taking a more precautionary approach to the introduction of these chemicals into the environment.'

Dr. Wozniak: Roundup Damages DNA in Human Blood Cells at Low Concentrations (publishd in Food and Chemical Toxicology, July 2018) with link to original article. DNA damage induced by glyphosate and its derivatives increased in order: AMPA, glyphosate, Roundup 360 PLUS. AMPA is the degradation product of glyphosate. The formulation Roundup 360 PLUS was toxic at 50 times lower concentration than glyphosate alone. For regulatory purposes, a pesticide is tested by itself, never as a formulation. Acceptable levels are also based on single pesticide testing, and not on its increased toxicity in formulation. 

Neonicotinoids may alter estrogen production in humans (INRS,April 26, 2018,/ by Stéphanie Thibault)   An INRS team publishes the first-ever in vitro study demonstrating the potential effects of these pesticides on human health in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. The results of the study show an increase in aromatase expression and a unique change in the pattern in which aromatase was expressed, which is similar to that observed in the development of certain breast cancers. (also filed under neonicotinoids)

Harvard Meta-Analysis Ties Childhood Cancer to Pesticide Use (Beyond Pesticides, September 15, 2015) A study released this week in the journal Pediatrics finds that children’s exposure to pesticides in and around the home results in an increased risk of developing certain childhood cancers... For example, while residential herbicide use was associated with an increased risk of leukemia, the link between outdoor insecticide use and childhood cancers was not found to be statistically significant. However, exposure to insecticides inside the home was significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood leukemia and lymphoma.

Popular weedkiller may cause cancer, World Health Organization agency says Ariana Eunjung Cha / The Washington Post, 6 July 2015. 2,4-D, sprayed widely on farms and used in a number of popular lawn-care products has been designated as "possibly" carcinogenic to humans by a World Health Organization research arm. 2,4,5-T was the main part of Agent Orange containing a lot of dioxins and has been banned for a while. but 2,4-D contains dioxins too. However, they are not the kind companies have to report on, so are not regularly measured. More on 2,4-D and dioxins under registration and re-evaluation.

Media and NGO comments on WHO classification of glyphosate as probable carcinogen (GM Watch. 02 April 2015). However, unless the EPA reforms its evaluation processes, it will not take the WHO report (GM Watch,March 20, 2015) into serious consideration.

Read more: http://www.motherearthnews.com/nature-and-environment/brain-tumors-in-children-caused-by-pesticide-exposure-zb0z1305zroc.aspx#ixzz3KOkuP8DT

Review Links Glyphosate to non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (Beyond Pesticides, May 2, 2014 The study represents one of the most comprehensive reviews on the topic of occupational exposure to pesticides in scientific literature, demonstrating their clear harm to human health. In addition to linking glyphosate to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the researchers also found that carbamate insecticides, organophosphate insecticides, phenoxy herbicide MCPA, and lindane were positively associated with NHL cancer.

Triclosan Linked to the Growth of Breast Cancer Cells (Beyond Pesticides, April, 29, 2014) as well as octylphenolTriclosan is an antibacterial and antifungal agent found in numerous commonly known household products. Octylphenol is a commercial solvent that can be found in paints and plastics, and is often used as an inert ingredient in pesticide formulations in the U.S, but not listed in Canada (List of Formulants 2010). Both chemicals are also endocrine-disrupting.

Controversial New Study Reports GM Corn Can Cause Cancer

SKIN- Pesticide use and cutaneous melanoma in pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Heath Study Significant associations were seen between cutaneous melanoma and maneb/mancozeb, parathion, and carbaryl. Other associations with benomyl and ever use of arsenical pesticides were also suggested. (June 2010)

Residential Pesticide Exposure Blamed for Children Brain Cancers 2009

Crop herbicide imazethapyr may cause bladder and colon cancer 2009

Breast Cancer (Julia Brody, PhD from the Silent Spring Institute.(2012 Beyond Pesticides Forum: Pesticides & Health Panel, pt. 3) video

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Linked to Herbicides in Two New Studies 2008

also see fact sheets/glyphosate and endocrine disruption

While the American Cancer society (ACS) is for the most part silent on the impact of pesticides on childhood cancer, the Canadian Cancer Society (CCS) recognizes these risks. (links) However, recent enquiries to the CCS in Regina indicates that there is no longer any staff or money allocated for pesticide work. (July 2019)

Rate of Male Breast Cancer on the Rise in Scotland, Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Suspected   (Beyond Pesticides, January 29, 2020) A study of male breast cancer (MBC) in Scotland reports an alarming, increasing trend of this rare disease – especially in agricultural areas. While only accounting for 1% of diagnosed breast cancer, MBC forms in the breast tissue of men and is often fatal because of delayed diagnosis and lack of research on male-specific treatment.  Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can, even at low exposure levels, disrupt normal hormonal (endocrine) function. EDCs include many pesticides, exposures to which have been linked to infertility and other reproductive disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and early puberty, as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and childhood and adult cancers.  EDCs represent an under-researched and under-regulated threat to human healthBeyond Pesticides wrote on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s stalled analysis of the risk these chemicals pose, “A persistent critique of EPA’s toxicological assumptions has to do with the “dose makes the poison” concept that underlies conventional toxicology. In fact, researchers have discovered that this concept—that the more exposure, the more extreme the impacts—is not consistently the case across exposures to chemical compounds such as pesticides. Additionally, even very low-level exposures (aka “doses”) can, in some instances, cause more extreme health impacts.”     A 2017 European study shows that costs of disease burden and health care related to chemical environmental exposures, writ large, may constitute a figure somewhere north of 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP).

Increased Risk of Skin Cancer Tied to Use of Weed Killers, as Researchers Call for a Precautionary Standard   (Beyond Pesticides, November 5, 2019)   'Herbicide use is associated with an increased risk of developing cutaneous melanoma, a skin cancer, according to a meta-analysis published last month in the Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. For those working on farms and in other occupations with frequent exposure to herbicides, the risk is another in a long list of pesticide-induced diseases. Ultimately, researchers suggest, “A precautionary public health safety policy that includes preventive individual counselling and surveillance to workers exposed to pesticides may be advisable.”    Herbicide exposure is linked to a long list of health effects, which are documented in Beyond Pesticides Pesticide- Induced Diseases Database.'

U.S. Health Agency Concurs with International Findings Linking Weed Killer Glyphosate to Cancer, while Inspector General Investigates Misconduct at EPA   (Beyond Pesticides, April 23, 2019)   'But despite the attempts of an apparently corrupt EPA official, earlier this month DHHS’ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) released its first draft on the Toxicological Profile for Glyphosate. Top-line findings appear consistent with conclusions made by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) on the carcinogenicity of glyphosate...However, the studies and references analyzed in the report indicate clearly there is strong link between glyphosate and cancer. Of particular note are the three meta-analyses of epidemiological studies reviewed by ATSDR: Schinasi and Leon (2014), Chang and Delzell (2016), and the IARC monograph, which all found “positive associations” between glyphosate exposure and cancer. The Chang and Delzell (2016) study, funded in part by Monsanto itself, downplays in its abstract conclusions that in fact line up closely to the other meta-studies.'

Filmmaker & Former Groundskeeper Who Sued Monsanto & Won To Premiere Film “Ground War”  (Beyond Pesticides, April 2, 2019) The new documentary film “Ground War” will have its New York City premiere screening on Saturday, April 6, 2019, 7:30pm at Florence Gould Hall, 55 East 59th Street, New York, NY. The film is a moving depiction of a son’s quest for answers about the cause of his father’s cancer—which takes him into the world of doctors, scientists, pesticide regulators, victims of pesticide poisoning, activists, and land managers.

Exposure to Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis and Supporting Evidence (Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, Available online 10 February 2019)  'Overall, in accordance with evidence from experimental animal and mechanistic studies, our current meta-analysis of human epidemiological studies suggests a compelling link between exposures to GBHs and increased risk for NHL.'

Association of Frequency of Organic Food Consumption With Cancer RiskFindings From the NutriNet-Santé Prospective Cohort Study (JAMA Internal Medicine, October 22, 2018)  High organic food scores were inversely associated with the overall risk of cancer (hazard ratio for quartile 4 vs quartile 1, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.88; P for trend = .001; absolute risk reduction, 0.6%; hazard ratio for a 5-point increase, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.96). also filed under organics/health

Brazilian Researchers Link Rise in Colon Cancer to Increase in Pesticide Use  (Beyond Pesticides, November 7, 2018)  'The researchers link the rise in the country's pesticide use since the turn of the century to significant increases in colon cancer, particularly in the country's most intensive agricultural southern regions...Researchers note that as Brazil's agriculture industry has grown over the last two decades, it has become the world's leading consumer of pesticides. In the year 2000, roughly 160 million tons of pesticides were used in the country. By 2012, that number reached nearly 500 million tons. Scientists compared pesticides sold to standard mortality rates (SMR) in each Brazilian state. SMR measures mortality by comparing observed mortality to expected mortality when adjusting for age and gender. A rate above one indicates that there is excessive mortality. Despite improvements in detection and treatment, colon cancer deaths recorded in the country increased from roughly 950k in 2000 to over one million by 2012. Using a series of statistical models, researchers showed that as the amount of pesticide sold in the country increased, the SMR for colon cancer increased in close correlation. This trend held for both male and female populations.'

EWG is rethinking cancer prevention (April 2016) Traditional initiatives that aim to prevent cancer have largely ignored the role of toxic substances in the environment. EWG wants to change that with new investigations on environmental causes of cancer. We will inform and empower you with tips and tools to help stop cancer before it starts. Check their site for their blog, research, resources, headlines and 'ask an expert' on cancer prevention.

Agricultural Crop Density Linked to Childhood Cancer in Midwest (Beyond Pesticides, October 16, 2015) According to a new study, living in crop-dense regions is linked to increased leukemia and central nervous system cancers in children. Although there is a litany of scientific literature that highlights the link between pesticide exposure and childhood illness, this study is one of few that examines the relationship between residential exposures to agricultural pesticides via crop density and adverse health outcomes, and may serve as a basis for further investigation into childhood cancer rates in areas where agricultural pesticides are highly used. The study, titled Agricultural crop density and the risk of childhood cancer in the Midwestern United States: an ecologic study, was published in the journal Environmental Health.

Exploring the Connection: A State of the Science Conference on Pesticides and Cancer,

Canadian Cancer Society   Conference Presentations (Nov. 12,13, 2008)

President’s Cancer Panel Says Burden of Environmentally Induced Cancer Greatly Underestimated  (Beyond Pesticides, May 11, 2010. Posted in Agriculture, Cancer, Chemicals, Disease/Health Effects, Farmworkers)The Panel’s report: Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk: What We Can Do Now. "Part Two of the report focuses on sources and types of environmental contaminants, and its second chapter focuses specifically on agricultural sources of exposure... Approximately 40 chemicals classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as known, probable, or possible human carcinogens, are used in EPA-registered pesticides now on the market.” The Panel notes that the pesticide tolerances, the allowable limit on food, have been criticized by environmentalists as being inadequate and unduly influenced by industry." " In addition, the report finds that health care providers often fail to consider occupational and environmental factors when diagnosing patient illness."

April 2009   BC Health and Environmental Powerhouses Call for Cosmetic Pesticide Ban as Election Campaign Ramps Up

SK Residents support pesticide bylaws. ‘Nearly 7 out of 10 Saskatchewan residents (69%) believe that pesticides pose a threat totheir health and would support a law phasing out pesticides used to beautify lawns and gardens.’ says a Canadian Cancer Society-SK (CCS-SK) sponsored Ipsos Reid poll. CCS-Sk report on environmental carcinogens in Saskatchewan deals specifically with tobacco, second hand smoke, cosmetic use of pesticides and community right to know, and product labeling. (2008)

Group wants to weed out pesticide use in Sask (SNAP) Regina Leader Post article (June 2007) 

Environmental Carcinogens. Report of the CCS-SK. Chapter 4 presents CCS-SK position on pesticides.

Canadian Cancer Statistics from the Canadian Cancer Society. Browse the news on the right side or search 'Cancer statistics'

Cancer Smart 3.1 Consumer Guide from the Labour Environmental Alliance Society, Vancouver B.C. www.leas.ca/ (2011) Pesticides are covered in one whole chapter plus in the chapter on foods.

Cancer society says its research supports ban on cosmetic pesticide use.

Identifying agents of cancer  statement from the Canadian Cancer Society: "We agree with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) that about 80 per cent of cancers are linked to environmental factors such as exposure to chemicals at home and in the workplace, as well as tobacco smoke, obesity, smoking and inactivity ".

Report on Carcinogens. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/?objectid=03C9B512-ACF8-C1F3-ADBA53CAE848F635  Prevent Cancer Now. Spring 2012  from article above)

The United States’ bi-annual Report on Carcinogens, a product of the National Toxicology Program, provides a list of all substances which are known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens... Product manufacturers are now using the GreenScreen™ to ensure that the hazardous materials they eliminate will indeed be replaced by known safer alternatives.