• Weeds Can Be Managed Without Chemical Pesticides
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  • Link to SK Organic Resources
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  • Learn About Colony Collapse Disorder and How to Protect Bees
  • LIving Near Fields Increases Pesticide Exposure
  • Learn To Manage Weeds Without Chemical Pesticides
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  • Learn About Pesticides in Foods


Auto-immune diseases including MS and ALS

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There are over 100 described auto-immune diseases, including Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Lou Gehrig's Disease, systemic lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.. Exposure to environmentally and occupationally encountered toxicants can be associated with the development of certain autoimmune diseases and with the induction of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Several studies have related elevated ANAs to pesticide exposure.

ALS Risk Elevated from Toxic Petrochemical Landscape Pesticides, Study Adds to Previous Findings    (Beyond Pesticides, April 18, 2024) University of Michigan researchers have found a statistically significant relationship between heightened risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and household exposure to lawn care products and pesticides. The study results were published earlier this month in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. ... The researchers in this study find that pesticide storage, lawn care product storage, and woodworking supplies storage indoors have a statistically significant relationship with poorer ALS survival.

Commonly Used Neurotoxic Pesticide Exposure Increases ALS Risk to Workers and Residents  (Beyond Pesticides, September 30, 2021) Individuals working or living in areas with frequent neurotoxic pesticide use experience more amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incidences than the general population.  “We identified pesticides applied to crops in the area of residences associated with risk of ALS in a large healthcare claims network.  Both the study results and the confirmation studies validate pesticides have the highest positive association with neurotoxicity. Scientists find and 2,4-D (herbicide), glyphosate (herbicide), carbaryl (insecticide), and chlorpyrifos (insecticide) significantly increase ALS risk among residentially exposed populations.

Occupational Exposure to Pesticides, and Other Environmental Chemicals Increase Risk of Developing ALS   (Beyond Pesticides, May 28, 2020) Exposure to agricultural and industrial pesticides, solvents (thinners), electromagnetic fields, and heavy metals predispose humans to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)   Results find that agricultural workers have higher risks of developing ALS, with the highest risk association for those who experience over ten years of pesticide exposure in agricultural work. Results show a positive association between work-related solvents exposure (i.e., paint thinners; and paint removers) and disease risk. Non-environmental, occupational pesticide exposure, namely fungicides, augments threats of developing ALS. The risk of developing ALS intensifies indiscriminately with exposure to heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and selenium. Electromagnetic fields marginally foster disease risk via both occupational and environmental exposure. Lastly, participants living near bodies of water are at higher risk for developing ALS, possible due to neurotoxic outgassing from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).

EPA-Registered Herbicide Found to Trigger Inflammation Linked to Onset of Multiple Sclerosis(Beyond Pesticides, February 5, 2019)  'Researchers began their investigation with 976 chemicals identified by EPA’s ToxCast program, an inventory of compounds that have undergone screening for a battery of laboratory tests. Within that inventory, 75 chemicals, including linuron, were found to interfere with the signaling pathways linked to MS...“When we study inflammation and neurodegeneration, we learn that the environment may play just as important of a role as genetics,” Dr. Quintana noted.'  SNAP Comment: This is the first time I come across the term exposome which can be defined as the measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime and how those exposures relate to health. There are currently 7 Linuron products registered in Canada where they can be used on saskatoon, chokecherry, potatoe, grain crops and more.

Association of Environmental Toxins With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Feng-Chiao Su, PhD1 et al;JAMA Neurol., May 09, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.0594. Pesticide exposure in the cumulative exposure windows was significantly associated with ALS... Military service was also associated with ALS in 2 time windows...A multivariable model of measured persistent environmental pollutants in the blood, representing cumulative occupational and residential exposure, showed increased odds of ALS for 2 Organochlorine pesticides  (pentachlorobenzene: and cis-chlordane, 2 PCBs (PCB 175 and PCB 202 and 1 BFR (polybrominated diphenyl ether 47. see also Exposure to Pesticides linked to ALS (Beyond Pesticides, May 16, 2016) 

ALS-Chemical Exposure Linked- 3-08
ALS and pesticides 9 articles , from SK studies to genetic-toxin links.

Scientific Studies

Effects of oral administration of malathion on immune function in female S JL/J mice. Johnson V, et al.  Fourth international symposium "rural health and safety in a changing world".October 18-22 1998,  click on Chemicals Exposure, Toxicology and Human Health - presentation O 21. 24 % of exposed mice developed markers of auto-immunity ( AI) Exposure to Malathion 500 EC is associated with expression of ANA, a serologic hallmark of AI. Alterations in T-lymphocyte mediated immune regulation may be a mechanism by which malathion influences the expression of autoimmunity in this model.


Antinuclear antibodies in farmers. Rosenberg AM, Semchuk KM, McDuffie HH, et al.University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada S7N OW8.  Fourth international symposium "rural health and safety in a changing world".October 18-22 1998,  click on Chemicals Exposure, Toxicology and Human Health - presentation O 22. Among farmers ANA positivity is associated with production of certain crops and certain animals and with exposure to specific pesticides. These data indicate that occupational and environmental exposures related to the agricultural industry are associated with the development of ANA, a serologic expression of autoimmunity,


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also see glyphosatewildlife/insects. health/overview/links, resistancefood  

Study Finds Novel Relationship Between Shingles and Pesticide Exposure   (Beyond Pesticides, November 29, 2023) A study published in Environment International finds high pesticide exposure incidence associated with shingles...  The results find that 2,396 pesticide applicators were diagnosed with shingles during the 1996 to 2016 timeframe, with higher shingles rates among patients hospitalized for pesticide-related illness, pesticide poisoning, and HPEE (high pesticide exposure events). Thus, these initial findings suggest acute, high-level, and medically significant effects of pesticide exposure can increase shingles risk in individuals years to decades following exposure... Although this study notes that the mechanism involved in shingles incidence is not well understood, studies, including this one, suggest immune system suppression is the main culprit. '

Glyphosate Induces Antibiotic Resistance in Deadly Hospital-Acquired Infection   (Beyond Pesticides, November 8, 2022) Glyphosate weed killers induce antibiotic resistance in deadly hospital-acquired bacteria, according to a new study published late last month in the journal Scientific Reports.   To better understand the role pesticides like glyphosate are playing in these deadly infections, scientists examined five different strains of P. aeruginosa, four retrieved from the environment and one from a clinical setting. All represented strains that were initially sensitive to antibiotics.     These strains were exposed to both technical grade glyphosate and a range of glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) formulations, including the products Roundup Mega, Dominator Extra 608 SL, Gladiator 480 SL (which are sold only in Europe). P. aeruginosa was exposed to 0.5% of glyphosate and GBH products per the volume of the medium (equivalent to 1.8–2.8 g/L glyphosate acid depending on the type of formulation). “This concentration falls within the recommended dilution range of GBHs 0.2–3.5% (v/v) for agricultural and household use and similar to those found in water after agricultural practices,” the study notes.   At this level, glyphosate and its formulated products significantly increase the minimum inhibitory concentration (the lowest concentration of an antibiotic that would inhibit the growth of a given bacteria) of P. aeruginosa to the carbapenem-type antibiotic imipenem by between 2-32 fold.

Conventional Apples Found to Be Coated in Fungicides and Drug-Resistant Fungi   (Beyond Pesticides, April 6, 2022) Conventional apples sold at market and sprayed with synthetic fungicides may not only contain drug-resistant fungi, but function as a transmission reservoir and route to spread these dangerous pathogens, finds research published in mBio late last month by a team of researchers from India and Canada. As reports of fungal resistance rise, particularly in hospitals and among the immunocompromised, there is an urgent need to understand and address the root causes of these emerging disease threats.   Overall, eight (13%) of apples had the presence of C. auris on its surface. All of the isolates were found in stored fruits purchased at market, while those purchased directly from the orchards contained no pathogenic fungi. Fungicides were found to be present on every apple that also contained C. auris, and included a range of different classes with varying modes of action. This included triazole fungicides (such as tebuconazoledifenoconazolesulfentrazone, and flusilazole), methyl benzimidazole carbamates (such as carbendazim and thiabendazole), phthalimides like captanpyridinecarboxamides like boscalid, aromatic amines like diphenylamine, the phenolpyrrole fludoxonil, and quinone outside inhibitors (like kresoxim-methyl and pyraclostrobin).   However, the presence of fungicides was generally evenly distributed between those found with and without drug-resistant pathogenic C. auris. Fresh fruit from neither conventional nor organic orchards contained C. auris, but only organic apples were free of any fungicide residue, while conventional apples were contaminated with two or three fungicides on each fruit. Further isolation and culture of C. auris apples found them to have reduced sensitivity to commonly found triazole fungicides.

Deadly Fungus Resistant to Fungicide Jumps from Farms to People, as Human Pathogen Spreads    (Beyond Pesticides, February 23, 2022) Fungicide use in agriculture is driving the spread of multi-fungicide resistant human pathogens, finds a recent study conducted by scientists at the University of Georgia. Scientists focused their research on Aspergillus fumigatus, a common mold that can infect humans and cause aspergillosis. Although some have problems with mild sensitivity to the fungus, virulent infections called invasive aspergillosis can occur in immunocompromised individuals and are on the rise. Cases of invasive aspergillosis increased 3% per annum between 2000 and 2013, and roughly 300,000 worldwide are diagnosed each year.    Of 700 A. fumigatus samples collected, nearly 20% (123) displayed some level of resistance to the commonly used azole fungicide tebuconazoleTwelve of the 123 were highly resistant at clinically relevant levels for human health care. No samples taken from organic sites contained resistant fungi.... Sure enough, the azole-resistant strains also displayed resistance to methyl benzimidazole carbamate (MBC) fungicides like carbendazim, and quinone outside inhibitors (Qol) like azoxystrobin. ...“The strains that are from the environment and from people are very closely related to each other,” study co-author Marin T. Brewer, PhD, said.'

Common Fungicide Causes a Decrease in Antioxidant Responsible for Defense Against Diseases like COVID-19  (Beyond Pesticides, October 8, 2020) 'Research from the University of Wisconsin—Madison (UWM), suggests that fludioxonil—a commonly used agricultural fungicidedecreases the human body’s ability to defend itself against illnesses, like COVID-19, and promotes disease permanency. Tristan Brandhorst, a Ph.D. scientist at UWM, notes that a pesticide-induced reduction in the antioxidant glutathione could be responsible for this lack of bodily defense against disease.  Dr. Brandhorst recently discovered that the chemical causes metabolic shock to fungi, hindering glucose transport across the cell membrane. Additionally, further analysis finds that exposure to fludioxonil decreases glutathione levels in non-fungal cells, promoting “the ability of the fungicide fludioxonil to act on a sugar-metabolizing enzyme common to all cells, and to produce the damaging compound methylglyoxal.”  SNAP Comment: As of 18 October 2021, a PMRA label search indicates that fludioxonil is not nor has it been registered in Canada..

Glyphosate Raises Malaria Risk through Damage to Insect Immune Systems – New Study   (Sustainable Pulse, May 14 2021) with link to study.   'Melanin works in insect immunity essentially by trapping and killing an invading bacterium, fungal cell, or parasite. Melanin production rises in response to the infection, and in a process called melanization, melanin molecules surround the invading pathogen—while highly reactive molecules produced as part of the melanin-synthesis process, effectively destroy the invader. ...the researchers found that in A. gambiae mosquitoes, glyphosate inhibits melanin production and melanization, and thereby makes the mosquitoes more susceptible to infection by Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous species of malaria parasite. They found too that glyphosate alters the composition of the bacterial and fungal population in the mosquito midgut—the “gut microbiome” that, as in humans, helps regulate mosquito health.

Pesticide Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Covid-19, Gulf War Veterans Found At Risk   (Beyond Pesticides, April 28, 2021) 'According to recent data, out of 160,000 Covid-19 cases among veterans, the mortality rate was more than 4%. Researchers are pointing to Gulf War Syndrome, and past exposure to organophosphate pesticides as part of the problem. “We have identified a basic mechanism linked with inflammation that could increase susceptibility to COVID-19 infection among people exposed to organophosphates,” said Saurabh Chatterjee, PhD, from the University of South Carolina.  Cells exposed to IL-6 and chlorpyrifos had much higher ACE2 expression, indicating a higher risk of infection. Additionally, cells exposed to these materials also recorded higher rates of apoptosis, or cell death.'

Environmental Pollutants, including Pesticides, Can Increase Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases    (Beyond Pesticides, July 24, 2020) ' New research shows one such relationship: the transmission of schistosomiasis, a tropical disease caused by contact with the larvae of parasitic worms (schistosomes), is likely accelerated by the use of pesticides and other agrochemicals (such as synthetic fertilizers). The study, published in The Lancet Planetary Health, also shows that contamination of freshwater bodies with these chemicals disturbs ecological balances that can actually limit schistosome infections.'

Deadly Fungal Infection Raises Concerns about Fungicides Used in Agriculture  (Beyond Pesticides, April 25, 2019)  Candida aurisis an emerging fungal pathogen that threatens those with compromised or immature immune systems, such as infants, the elderly, people taking steroids for autoimmune disorders, diabetics, those undergoing chemotherapy, and even smokers. Nearly half of those who contract a C. auris infection die within 90 days. One of the factors making this fungus so deadly is that it has developed resistance to existing antifungal medicines, with 90% of infections resistant to one drug, and 30% to two or more. As is true for resistant bacteria, culprits in C. auris’s development of resistance may be the overuse of antifungal medications in health care and overreliance on fungicides in agriculture.

Study Finds Individuals Exposed to Triclosan More Likely to Carry Staph Bacteria (Beyond Pesticides, April 21, 2014) Finding has troubling implications for public health. see antibacterial

Exposure to Dioxin During Early Development Impairs Ability to Fight Infection (Beyond Pesticides, March 19, 2009 Posted in Children/Schools, Disease/Health Effects) : baby mice had fewer white blood cells that normally kill the flu virus and more of a different kind that increases lung inflammation.

Low dose malathion, DDT and dioxins suppress immune system. In all pesticide-injected groups, antibody response was dramatically suppressed, DTH reactions were enhanced, and respiratory burst was lower. The immune system of frogs exposed to pathogens prior to pesticide exposure can still respond normally.

Mutiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS) and Allergies

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MCS and Allergies, look under apprpprite section. Both of these issues are immune problems. 

Multiple Chemical Sensitivites can get bad enough to ruin people's lives as they knew it. Pesticide exposure is a main cause and trigger. 

Pesticides, TILT, and Mast Cells: a Growing Global Concern (Health session, National Pesticide Forum, Beyond Pesticides, Health, Biodiversity and Climate, a Path for a Livable future, 15 September 2022). around 1 hour. Followed by "The farmers restoring Hawaii’s ancient food forests that once fed an island" by Kaipo Kekona. The whole presentation can also be found at Beyond Pesticides national forum recorndings 2022. The original link is on youtube.  Also links to Dr Millar's other presentation:  Toxicant-Induced Loss of Tolerance for Chemicals, Foods, and Drugs: A Global Phenomenon  (Dr Claudia Miller,  June 20, 2022, video presentation at Microbiome First.) with links to studies and materials.

Researchers Uncovering Patterns that Help to Explain Chemical Sensitivities   (Beyond Pesticides, November 3, 2021) A significant and increasing share of the U.S. ( and Canadian) population is reporting sensitivities to certain chemicals.    'TILT is characterized by a two-step process. First, there is an “initiation exposure event,” whereby an individual is either repeatedly exposed to low levels of certain chemicals, or experiences a major exposure incident. In the second stage, affected individuals are “triggered” even by minute exposures, not only to the chemical that affected them in the first place, but also to other chemicals that didn’t affect them previously. Exposure to a trigger results in a range of debilitating symptoms, such as weakness, chronic fatigue, asthma, rash, and headache, that can sometimes leave exposed individuals incapacitated and unable to lead a normal life. This disease is not similar to pollen allergies that can be tested by immunoglobin antibodies. TILT sufferers are often bounced from doctor to doctor based on individual symptoms, have significant difficulties receiving a diagnosis, and must navigate a world filled with triggering compounds, ranging from pesticides, to fragrances, molds, and other indoor air contaminants, traffic exhaust, pharmaceutical drugs, certain food, or food and drug combinations, or other volatile compounds.   They found that the most prevalent initial exposure was from chemicals considered to be Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) or Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds, with pesticides next, and combustion products the third most frequent exposure. The study notes, “As a broader category, synthetic organic chemicals and their combustion products were the primary exposures associated with chemical intolerance, including pesticides, peroxides, nerve agents, anti-nerve agent drugs, lubricants and additives, xylene, benzene, and acetone.   TheQuick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory", or QEESI test, an internationally recognized tool for quickly evaluating an individual for TILT, and can be used both by medical professionals and patients.   The presence of TILT undermines classical toxicological concept that “the dose makes the poison.” The authors indicate that a better phrase may be that “dose plus host makes the poison,” with an understanding that past exposures and various genetic factors are likely at play in terms of individual tolerance to environmental pollutants.   SNAP Comment: many organic chemicals including petroleum products including xylene, benzene, naphta, ethylene, kerosene, toluene, naphthalene and more are still listed in the PMRA's currentl list of formulants so VOCs and pesticides are far from being mutually exclusive.

also see fluodixonil

Common Fungicide Causes a Decrease in Antioxidant Responsible for Defense Against Diseases like COVID-19   (Beyond Pesticides, October 8, 2020) Research from the University of Wisconsin—Madison (UWM), suggests that fludioxonil—a commonly used agricultural fungicide—decreases the human body’s ability to defend itself against illnesses, like COVID-19, and promotes disease permanency....a pesticide-induced reduction in the antioxidant glutathione could be responsible for this lack of bodily defense against disease.Although previous studies report that fludioxonil disrupts hepatic (liver), endocrine, and neurological systems, the mode of action by which this fungicide causes these issues only recently came to light.