• Learn to Manage Pests Naturally
  • Driving Near Recently Sprayed Fields Exposes People to Pesticides
  • LIving Near Fields Increases Pesticide Exposure
  • SNAP Tour of Organic Vegetable Garden
  • SNAP Display at Event
  • Learn to Keep Insects Out of your Crops
  • Learn About Colony Collapse Disorder and How to Protect Bees
  • Link to SK Organic Resources
  • Learn To Manage Weeds Without Chemical Pesticides
  • Weeds Can Be Managed Without Chemical Pesticides


Auto-immune diseases including MS and ALS

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There are over 100 described auto-immune diseases, including Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Lou Gehrig's Disease, systemic lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.. Exposure to environmentally and occupationally encountered toxicants can be associated with the development of certain autoimmune diseases and with the induction of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Several studies have related elevated ANAs to pesticide exposure.

Commonly Used Neurotoxic Pesticide Exposure Increases ALS Risk to Workers and Residents  (Beyond Pesticides, September 30, 2021) Individuals working or living in areas with frequent neurotoxic pesticide use experience more amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incidences than the general population.  “We identified pesticides applied to crops in the area of residences associated with risk of ALS in a large healthcare claims network.  Both the study results and the confirmation studies validate pesticides have the highest positive association with neurotoxicity. Scientists find and 2,4-D (herbicide), glyphosate (herbicide), carbaryl (insecticide), and chlorpyrifos (insecticide) significantly increase ALS risk among residentially exposed populations.

Occupational Exposure to Pesticides, and Other Environmental Chemicals Increase Risk of Developing ALS   (Beyond Pesticides, May 28, 2020) Exposure to agricultural and industrial pesticides, solvents (thinners), electromagnetic fields, and heavy metals predispose humans to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)   Results find that agricultural workers have higher risks of developing ALS, with the highest risk association for those who experience over ten years of pesticide exposure in agricultural work. Results show a positive association between work-related solvents exposure (i.e., paint thinners; and paint removers) and disease risk. Non-environmental, occupational pesticide exposure, namely fungicides, augments threats of developing ALS. The risk of developing ALS intensifies indiscriminately with exposure to heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and selenium. Electromagnetic fields marginally foster disease risk via both occupational and environmental exposure. Lastly, participants living near bodies of water are at higher risk for developing ALS, possible due to neurotoxic outgassing from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).

EPA-Registered Herbicide Found to Trigger Inflammation Linked to Onset of Multiple Sclerosis(Beyond Pesticides, February 5, 2019)  'Researchers began their investigation with 976 chemicals identified by EPA’s ToxCast program, an inventory of compounds that have undergone screening for a battery of laboratory tests. Within that inventory, 75 chemicals, including linuron, were found to interfere with the signaling pathways linked to MS...“When we study inflammation and neurodegeneration, we learn that the environment may play just as important of a role as genetics,” Dr. Quintana noted.'  SNAP Comment: This is the first time I come across the term exposome which can be defined as the measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime and how those exposures relate to health. There are currently 7 Linuron products registered in Canada where they can be used on saskatoon, chokecherry, potatoe, grain crops and more.

Association of Environmental Toxins With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Feng-Chiao Su, PhD1 et al;JAMA Neurol., May 09, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.0594. Pesticide exposure in the cumulative exposure windows was significantly associated with ALS... Military service was also associated with ALS in 2 time windows...A multivariable model of measured persistent environmental pollutants in the blood, representing cumulative occupational and residential exposure, showed increased odds of ALS for 2 Organochlorine pesticides  (pentachlorobenzene: and cis-chlordane, 2 PCBs (PCB 175 and PCB 202 and 1 BFR (polybrominated diphenyl ether 47. see also Exposure to Pesticides linked to ALS (Beyond Pesticides, May 16, 2016) 

ALS-Chemical Exposure Linked- 3-08
ALS and pesticides 9 articles , from SK studies to genetic-toxin links.

Scientific Studies

Effects of oral administration of malathion on immune function in female S JL/J mice. Johnson V, et al.  Fourth international symposium "rural health and safety in a changing world".October 18-22 1998,  click on Chemicals Exposure, Toxicology and Human Health - presentation O 21. 24 % of exposed mice developed markers of auto-immunity ( AI) Exposure to Malathion 500 EC is associated with expression of ANA, a serologic hallmark of AI. Alterations in T-lymphocyte mediated immune regulation may be a mechanism by which malathion influences the expression of autoimmunity in this model.


Antinuclear antibodies in farmers. Rosenberg AM, Semchuk KM, McDuffie HH, et al.University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada S7N OW8.  Fourth international symposium "rural health and safety in a changing world".October 18-22 1998,  click on Chemicals Exposure, Toxicology and Human Health - presentation O 22. Among farmers ANA positivity is associated with production of certain crops and certain animals and with exposure to specific pesticides. These data indicate that occupational and environmental exposures related to the agricultural industry are associated with the development of ANA, a serologic expression of autoimmunity,


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also see glyphosatewildlife/insects. health/overview/links

Common Fungicide Causes a Decrease in Antioxidant Responsible for Defense Against Diseases like COVID-19  (Beyond Pesticides, October 8, 2020) 'Research from the University of Wisconsin—Madison (UWM), suggests that fludioxonil—a commonly used agricultural fungicidedecreases the human body’s ability to defend itself against illnesses, like COVID-19, and promotes disease permanency. Tristan Brandhorst, a Ph.D. scientist at UWM, notes that a pesticide-induced reduction in the antioxidant glutathione could be responsible for this lack of bodily defense against disease.  Dr. Brandhorst recently discovered that the chemical causes metabolic shock to fungi, hindering glucose transport across the cell membrane. Additionally, further analysis finds that exposure to fludioxonil decreases glutathione levels in non-fungal cells, promoting “the ability of the fungicide fludioxonil to act on a sugar-metabolizing enzyme common to all cells, and to produce the damaging compound methylglyoxal.”  SNAP Comment: As of 18 October 2021, a PMRA label search indicates that fludioxonil is not nor has it been registered in Canada..

Glyphosate Raises Malaria Risk through Damage to Insect Immune Systems – New Study   (Sustainable Pulse, May 14 2021) with link to study.   'Melanin works in insect immunity essentially by trapping and killing an invading bacterium, fungal cell, or parasite. Melanin production rises in response to the infection, and in a process called melanization, melanin molecules surround the invading pathogen—while highly reactive molecules produced as part of the melanin-synthesis process, effectively destroy the invader. ...the researchers found that in A. gambiae mosquitoes, glyphosate inhibits melanin production and melanization, and thereby makes the mosquitoes more susceptible to infection by Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous species of malaria parasite. They found too that glyphosate alters the composition of the bacterial and fungal population in the mosquito midgut—the “gut microbiome” that, as in humans, helps regulate mosquito health.

Pesticide Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Covid-19, Gulf War Veterans Found At Risk   (Beyond Pesticides, April 28, 2021) 'According to recent data, out of 160,000 Covid-19 cases among veterans, the mortality rate was more than 4%. Researchers are pointing to Gulf War Syndrome, and past exposure to organophosphate pesticides as part of the problem. “We have identified a basic mechanism linked with inflammation that could increase susceptibility to COVID-19 infection among people exposed to organophosphates,” said Saurabh Chatterjee, PhD, from the University of South Carolina.  Cells exposed to IL-6 and chlorpyrifos had much higher ACE2 expression, indicating a higher risk of infection. Additionally, cells exposed to these materials also recorded higher rates of apoptosis, or cell death.'

Environmental Pollutants, including Pesticides, Can Increase Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases    (Beyond Pesticides, July 24, 2020) ' New research shows one such relationship: the transmission of schistosomiasis, a tropical disease caused by contact with the larvae of parasitic worms (schistosomes), is likely accelerated by the use of pesticides and other agrochemicals (such as synthetic fertilizers). The study, published in The Lancet Planetary Health, also shows that contamination of freshwater bodies with these chemicals disturbs ecological balances that can actually limit schistosome infections.'

Deadly Fungal Infection Raises Concerns about Fungicides Used in Agriculture  (Beyond Pesticides, April 25, 2019)  Candida aurisis an emerging fungal pathogen that threatens those with compromised or immature immune systems, such as infants, the elderly, people taking steroids for autoimmune disorders, diabetics, those undergoing chemotherapy, and even smokers. Nearly half of those who contract a C. auris infection die within 90 days. One of the factors making this fungus so deadly is that it has developed resistance to existing antifungal medicines, with 90% of infections resistant to one drug, and 30% to two or more. As is true for resistant bacteria, culprits in C. auris’s development of resistance may be the overuse of antifungal medications in health care and overreliance on fungicides in agriculture.

Study Finds Individuals Exposed to Triclosan More Likely to Carry Staph Bacteria (Beyond Pesticides, April 21, 2014) Finding has troubling implications for public health. see antibacterial

Exposure to Dioxin During Early Development Impairs Ability to Fight Infection (Beyond Pesticides, March 19, 2009 Posted in Children/Schools, Disease/Health Effects) : baby mice had fewer white blood cells that normally kill the flu virus and more of a different kind that increases lung inflammation.

Low dose malathion, DDT and dioxins suppress immune system. In all pesticide-injected groups, antibody response was dramatically suppressed, DTH reactions were enhanced, and respiratory burst was lower. The immune system of frogs exposed to pathogens prior to pesticide exposure can still respond normally.

Mutiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS) and Allergies

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MCS and Allergies, look under apprpprite section. Both of these issues are immune problems. 

Multiple Chemical Sensitivites can get bad enough to ruin people's lives as they knew it. Pesticide exposure is a main cause and trigger. 

also see fluodixonil

Common Fungicide Causes a Decrease in Antioxidant Responsible for Defense Against Diseases like COVID-19   (Beyond Pesticides, October 8, 2020) Research from the University of Wisconsin—Madison (UWM), suggests that fludioxonil—a commonly used agricultural fungicide—decreases the human body’s ability to defend itself against illnesses, like COVID-19, and promotes disease permanency....a pesticide-induced reduction in the antioxidant glutathione could be responsible for this lack of bodily defense against disease.Although previous studies report that fludioxonil disrupts hepatic (liver), endocrine, and neurological systems, the mode of action by which this fungicide causes these issues only recently came to light.