• Driving Near Recently Sprayed Fields Exposes People to Pesticides
  • Grow a Lush Garden Organically
  • Link to SK Organic Resources
  • SNAP Tour of Organic Vegetable Garden
  • Learn About Colony Collapse Disorder and How to Protect Bees
  • SNAP Display at Event
  • Learn To Manage Weeds Without Chemical Pesticides
  • LIving Near Fields Increases Pesticide Exposure
  • Weeds Can Be Managed Without Chemical Pesticides
  • Learn to Keep Insects Out of your Crops


Resistance to Herbicide

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Herbicide resistance keeps on rising   Mother Nature keeps outsmarting the available crop protection products   (Gord Leathers, Manitoba Cooperators, 1 March 2022)   'Increasing the seeding rate did have an impact. In one year, they reduced kochia biomass by 74 per cent. Geddes said the effect of the rotation was almost like adding another effective herbicide mode of action into the tank. They also hit the weed with a slightly different rotation, changing the crop life cycle by using winter wheat instead of spring wheat. Winter wheat is already well established by the time kochia is getting started and it’s harvested before the kochia can set seed. There are also issues with downy brome in Alberta. Both waterhemp and Palmer amaranth have been documented in Manitoba and both are capable of glyphosate resistance.' 

Weeds Are Now Developing Resistance to Herbicides They’ve Never Been Exposed To(Beyond Pesticides, October 13, 2021) Pesticide use in conventional chemical-intensive farming is so pervasive that weeds are developing resistance to herbicides they have never encountered before. According to research published in Plant and Cell Physiology and New Phytologist, the notoriously difficult-to-control weed waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) is outpacing commercial crops in its ability to detoxify after herbicide exposure. “This is probably the first known example where waterhemp has evolved a detox mechanism that a crop doesn’t have."    A observant study published in 2018 laid out the solution clearly: the best method to reduce herbicide resistance in target weeds is to reduce the overall use of herbicides.'.

EPA Registers Toxic Pesticide for Use on GE Soybeans without Required Opportunity for Public Comment   (Beyond Pesticides, April 7, 2020)     'Last week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered a carcinogenic herbicide for new uses without following  the required public notification and comment process, the Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting (MCIR) reports. The chemical in question, isoxaflutole, is a broadleaf weedkiller that can now be applied to genetically engineered (GE) soybeans in half of U.S. states. Health and environmental groups are outraged by EPA’s furtive move, accusing the agency of colluding with the pesticide industry.   A 2018 study found no evidence that rotating herbicides is an effective strategy to manage weeds. Farmers with high levels of resistance retain high weed density, no matter what new chemical are thrown at them. In fact, once a weed develops resistance to one herbicide, it is much more likely to develop resistance to other weedkillers.'

Weeds on Missouri Cropland Found To Be Resistant to Six Different Herbicides  (Beyond Pesticides, August 2, 2018) 'Weed scientists from the University of Missouri (UM) have just published evidence of a water hemp population resistant to six different herbicides. The study is sending shock waves throughout the chemical-intensive agricultural community, particularly in light of the plant’s resistance to 2,4-D.'  This woud certainly affect the effectiveness of 'Enlist Duo, developed by DowDupont in an attempt to address widespread weed resistance to glyphosate. Enlist Duo is an herbicide containing both glyphosate and 2,4-D, and is intended to be sprayed only on crops genetically engineered (GE) to tolerate exposure to both chemicals. However, with growing reports like this, many farmers may begin to rethink their approach.'

Resistance to Insecticide

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see alternatives head lice and scabies, additional information/cockroaches,gmos 

More Data Shows Failure of Crops Genetically Engineered to Incorporate Insecticide  (Beyond Pesticides, April 21, 2023) Into the annals of “entropic methods of agricultural pest control” arrives recent research showing that pests are, unsurprisingly, developing resistance to a genetically engineered (GE) biopesticide used for more than 90% of U.S. corn, cotton, and soybeans.

Insecticidal Bed Nets Contribute to Resistance in Bed Bug Populations    (Beyond Pesticides, January 5, 2022) The use of insecticidal bed nets (IBNs) to prevent mosquito bites in malaria-endemic communities can result in resistance developing in secondary pests like bed bugs, according to research published in Parasites and Vectors. Decreased efficacy against bed bugs and other non-mosquito pests may result in misuse of both mosquito adulticides and bed nets, hampering efforts to stop the spread of malaria and other insect-borne disease.

Cockroaches Show Increasing Resistance to Sugar-Laden Baits   (Beyond Pesticides, June 1, 2022) A new evolutionary strategy spreading among German cockroaches is making them more difficult to kill than ever before. In a recent publication in Nature Communications Biology, scientists determined that cockroaches are developing an aversion to sugar baits containing glucose, with impacts that are changing their behavior and altering their mating rituals. “We are constantly in an evolutionary battle with cockroaches,”

Ocean Health: First Reports of Salmon Lice Resistance in the Pacific Ocean Threatens Local Ecosystems (Beyond Pesticides, April 12, 2022) 'A recent study published in Scientific Reports warns that parasitic salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in Pacific Ocean open-net fish farming operations are becoming resistant to emamectin benzoate (EMB), an active ingredient used to control salmon lice population in North America, both in the U.S. and British Columbia, Canada. Previously, researchers believed parasitic salmon lice only had high rates of chemical resistance in the Atlantic region due to the mixing of farmed and wild salmon. However, Pacific salmon lice are exhibiting similar rates of decreased sensitivity to EMB from various sources, including a decrease in the wild Pacific salmon population, overuse of chemical treatments, and reliance on single chemical treatments.' SNAP: Emamectin benzoate is a new insecticide of Syngenta Crop Protection, with a new mechanism of action.

(German) Cockroaches Exhibit Resistance to Pesticides at 10x Label Application Rates  (Beyond Pesticides, March 22, 2022) 'The findings underscore the importance of an integrated approach to cockroach management that recognizes and responds to pest ecology, rather than search for an ever-elusive silver bullet.       This never-exposed laboratory strain of roaches were then exposed to varying levels of commonly used bait insecticides, including fipronilclothianidinindoxacarbabamectinhydramethylnon, and deltamethrin. Researchers determined lethal doses (LD) that killed 50% of the laboratory strain, as well as the dose that killed 95%. ... Scientists then took it a step further and exposed the cockroaches to ten times the LD95. At this rate, upwards of 80% of deltamethrin-exposed roaches still lived, while with fipronil that rate killed off 20-70%. The clothianidin and indoxacarb exposed roaches exhibited a significant negative correlation between survival time after exposure to 10 x LD95 and mortality, while with those exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon the correlation was insignificant.    Only abamectin exhibits a knockdown that would suggest a level of effectiveness in a cockroach infestation. However, researchers add caution to that finding by referencing a 2019 study that found rapid increases in abamectin resistance in field settings.In the 2019 study, researchers tested one active ingredient that was not tested in the present study: boric acid. No evidence was found that cockroaches have developed widespread resistance to boric acid, likely to due its mode of action.    SNAP Comment: Resistance is likely similar in Canada in buildings where monthly treatments are used. A PMRA label search indicates 0 registered insecticides with fipronil, and indoxacarb,17 each with deltamethrin and clothianidin, 19 with abamectin, and 2 with hydramethylnon. 22 products containing boric acid were alse registered. (7 April 2022)

Mosquito Resistance to Pesticides Continues to Grow  (Beyond Pesticides, February 24, 2022) Widespread, intensive pesticide use for mosquito control has allowed genetic mutations to persist among mosquito populations, causing subsequent resistance to future chemical exposure. According to a study published in Scientific Reports, two common species of female mosquitoes learned to evade pesticides following non-fatal exposure through smell. More concerning is the survival rate of these pre-exposed mosquitoes, as it is more than double that of unexposed mosquitoes. The study focused on female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciastus mosquitoes that researchers exposed to a sublethal dose of five pesticide compounds. 

Deer Ticks Developing Resistance to Popular Tick Control Chemical: Implications of Lyme Disease   (Beyond Pesticides, July 22, 2021) A new study published in the Journal of Medical Entomology finds black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapulari) in New York are developing potential resistance to widely used tick-control pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin.

Disease Carrying Mosquitoes Developing Resistance to Widely Used Mosquito Control Pesticides   (Beyond Pesticides, July 1, 2021) Yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) are evolving resistance to the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin, according to a study published by Colorado State University, highlighting the need to adopt ecologically-based mosquito management. Widespread, intensive use of the pesticide in mosquito control has allowed genetic mutations to persist among these mosquito populations, causing subsequent resistance to permethrin.  Insecticide resistance has been an issue since the introduction of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) in the 1940s.

Threat to Ocean Health: Pesticide Resistant Fish Lice Plague the North Atlantic Ocean   (Beyond Pesticides, June 3, 2021) A report published in Royal Society Open Science finds pesticide-resistant parasitic lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) are endangering wild and farmed fish populations in the North Atlantic. Extensive use of pesticides to rid the parasite has led to widespread resistance to multiple pesticides, prompting increasing infection rates among North Atlantic salmon populations.

Cockroaches Rapidly Develop Resistance to Nearly Every Pesticide, Requiring Alternative Approach   (Beyond Pesticides, July 2, 2019)    'Rotating the insecticides used each month resulted in cockroach populations that were relatively stable or increased, while the treatment with a mixture of pesticides resulted in a population explosion. And researchers found that for cockroaches that survived after an application of one chemical didn’t develop resistance merely to that one chemical or even class of chemicals, they also developed resistance to pesticides in other chemical classes. This occurred even if they had never been exposed to these new pesticides in their life.'    ' In the face of pesticide resistance, integrated measures that focus on structural, mechanical, and cultural pest management practices must become standard practice for this notorious pest.'   article also explains the appropriate approach, and links to alternatives. SNAP Comment: The only astounding thing about this research is that it took so long to be done! Surely, the fact that monthly spraying were needed for the last 60 years at least should have been a hint! especially when studies  have shown for at least 10 years that properly defined and used 'integrated pest management' worked!

Pesticide Use Kills Off Mosquito Predators Faster than Target Mosquitoes   (Beyond Pesticides, June 6, 2019) 'Pesticide use eliminates pest predators and permits mosquito populations to flourish, according to research conducted in Costa Rica by scientists at Utah State University.''Pristine areas had 58% fewer mosquitoes than the chemical-dependent orange groves surveyed. Moreover, chemical-dependent groves have zero damselfly predators within any bromeliad plant sampled; none at all. While organic orange groves have lower levels of damselflies detected than pristine areas, they still contain a viable population of the species...Discussions with conventional farmers in the region reveal that the organophosphate insecticide dimethoate has been used for up to several decades to manage psyllid pests...To determine whether pesticide resistance is involved, researchers tested and compared mosquitoes from chemical-intensive groves and pristine areas. Mosquitoes within chemical-dependent groves are able to endure significantly higher levels of pesticide exposure, up to ten times (10x) more than mosquitoes find in pristine areas.

Lice Found Resistant to Common Insecticide Treatment  (Beyond Pesticides, August 20, 2015) Just as children go back to school, research finds that lice in 25 of 30 states in a U.S. study have developed resistance to common over-the-counter treatments like permethrin, calling into questions the justification for exposing children to a neurotoxic and carcinogenic pesticide and elevating the need to consider nontoxic alternatives....Classified as a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin is “likely carcinogenic” and a suspected endocrine disruptor, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, and highly toxic to fish, aquatic animals, and bees. Dr. Yoon and his colleagues describe the threefold mutations that lice have developed over time due to the constant use of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. This new finding builds on his team’s previous research, which found that 99.6% of lice are resistant to chemical treatment, adding weight to the fact that chemical treatments not only are unnecessary given effective least-toxic alternatives, but also are not able to provide the lice control that manufacturers claim.

Resistance to Fungicides

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also see resistance

Scientists Zero In on “Rapidly Evolving” Human Pathogenic Fungi, May Be Tied to Widespread Fungicide Use    (Beyond Pesticides, May 10, 2023) Scientists are uncovering more information about a fungal pathogen behind a disease outbreak in Indian hospitals that sickened 10 pre-term infants. According to a study published in mBIO late last month, the yeast pathogen Lodderomyces elongisporus was the causative agent of this outbreak and is rapidly evolving resistance to control measures.

Fungi that Survive Fungicide Use Multiply and Thrive   (Beyond Pesticides, November 22, 2022) 'Fungus that survive a fungicide application may be able to multiply and thrive, putting plant yields at risk. This finding comes from research recently published by scientists at University of Illinoisfocusing on the impact of fungicide use on soybean yields and the disease Septoria brown spot, caused by the fungus Septoria glycines. The research underlines the danger of preventive chemical applications in an attempt to protect yield and shows how precarious pesticide use can be when subject to the complexity seen in field conditions.  The takeaway is to not proceed down the path of incessant preventive spraying but instead to reconsider the need for any pesticide application in the context of complex processes occurring on the leaf surface of soybean plants. “But what I’m learning from the study is that we don’t know exactly what we’re doing when we apply fungicides to protect yield. We need to learn more about the unintended effects of chemical applications.” and develop natural bio- alternatives.   “When we applied the fungicide, most of the fungi on plant surfaces decreased,” said Santiago Mideros, PhD, study coauthor and professor at the University of Illinois. “But a few of the fungi increased, Septoria among them. It was very surprising.”    Scientists employed a mixture of the fungicides fluxapyroxad and pyraclostrobin, which are commonly used throughout the Midwest to manage fungal diseases in soybean crops.'   SNAP Comments: As of 7 December 2022, 22 fluxapyroxad and 53 pyraclostrobin pesticides are registered in Canada.

Conventional Apples Found to Be Coated in Fungicides and Drug-Resistant Fungi   (Beyond Pesticides, April 6, 2022) 'Conventional apples sold at market and sprayed with synthetic fungicides may not only contain drug-resistant fungi, but function as a transmission reservoir and route to spread these dangerous pathogens.' The fungus was only found on stored apples, not ones purchased from the orchard.   'Fungicides were found to be present on every apple that also contained C. auris, and included a range of different classes with varying modes of action. This included triazole fungicides (such as tebuconazoledifenoconazolesulfentrazone, and flusilazole), methyl benzimidazole carbamates (such as carbendazim and thiabendazole), phthalimides like captanpyridinecarboxamides like boscalidaromatic amines like diphenylamine, the phenolpyrrole fludoxonil, and quinone outside inhibitors (like kresoxim-methyl and pyraclostrobin).. However, the presence of fungicides was generally evenly distributed between those found with and without drug-resistant pathogenic C. auris. Fresh fruit from neither conventional nor organic orchards contained C. auris, but only organic apples were free of any fungicide residue, while conventional apples were contaminated with two or three fungicides on each fruit. Further isolation and culture of C. auris apples found them to have reduced sensitivity to commonly found triazole fungicides.   In the context of the present study, the source of a pathogen resistant fungal outbreak in a hospital could conceivably be caused by the fruit served in the hospital cafeteria sourced through a global supply chain.'

Deadly Fungus Resistant to Fungicide Jumps from Farms to People, as Human Pathogen Spreads    (Beyond Pesticides, February 23, 2022) Fungicide use in agriculture is driving the spread of multi-fungicide resistant human pathogens, finds a recent study conducted by scientists at the University of Georgia. Scientists focused their research on Aspergillus fumigatus, a common mold that can infect humans and cause aspergillosis. Although some have problems with mild sensitivity to the fungus, virulent infections called invasive aspergillosis can occur in immunocompromised individuals and are on the rise. Cases of invasive aspergillosis increased 3% per annum between 2000 and 2013, and roughly 300,000 worldwide are diagnosed each year.    Of 700 A. fumigatus samples collected, nearly 20% (123) displayed some level of resistance to the commonly used azole fungicide tebuconazoleTwelve of the 123 were highly resistant at clinically relevant levels for human health care. No samples taken from organic sites contained resistant fungi.... Sure enough, the azole-resistant strains also displayed resistance to methyl benzimidazole carbamate (MBC) fungicides like carbendazim, and quinone outside inhibitors (Qol) like azoxystrobin. ...“The strains that are from the environment and from people are very closely related to each other,” study co-author Marin T. Brewer, PhD, said.'

Fungal Resistance to Antimicrobial Pesticides Leads to Deadly Infection   (Beyond Pesticides, November 19, 2021) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced, in mid-October, a revision of its guidance on the evaluation of antimicrobial pesticides used against Candida auris (C. auris). This pathogen is a type of fungus (a yeast) that can cause serious infection, and can spread readily among patients and staff in hospitals and other congregate healthcare settings (such as nursing homes). C. auris has developed resistance to what used to be the therapeutic impacts of major antifungal medications.

also see gmo/gmo crops require more pesticide use and legislation/regulatory/ USA, pyrethrinsalternatives head lice and scabies, Immune/infection, glyphosate

Findings Add to Crisis, Antibiotics in Agriculture, Lawns, and Landscapes Threaten Health   (Beyond Pesticides, November 14, 2022) Glyphosate weed killers induce antibiotic resistance in deadly hospital-acquired bacteria, according to a new study published late last month in the journal Scientific Reports.  These two facts lead to the conclusion that we must stop broadcasting pesticides in the environment and applying them to food. The crisis in antibiotic resistance, which creates a threat of another pandemic, is ignored in the registration of pesticides. 

Scientists Warn of Another Pandemic If Officials Continue to Ignore Explosion of ‘Antimicrobial Resistance’  (Beyond Pesticides, October 16, 2020) The Lancet has published an article that identifies several of the multiple and interacting crises the U.S. and world face, with a focus on another “looming potential pandemic . . . a rise in .e, whose rise threatens the health of people in the USA and globally.” It calls on leaders in the U.S. and beyond, asking that even as they address the current coronavirus pandemic, they also attend to the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) problem, which is a growing threat to public health.

Is Your Yoga Mat or Gym Breeding Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria?  (Beyond Pesticides, January 2, 2019)  'Every antibacterial chemical tested by researchers showed up in every facility investigated. Gyms, rooms with higher moisture levels, and those with carpeted flooring all had elevated levels of antibacterials compared to other facilities...Most concerning is the finding that the number of microbes with antibiotic resistant genes was higher in facilities with elevated concentrations of triclosan and its chemical cousin triclocarban. And the type of resistance microbes display is not limited to triclosan—they exhibit a diverse range of resistance measures. “Those genes do not code for resistance to triclosan,” Dr. Hartmann clarifies. “They code for resistance to medically relevant antibiotic drugs.”'

Pesticide Use Found to Surpass ‘Planetary Boundaries’ for Resistance   (Beyond Pesticides, November 16, 2018)    Pesticides and biocides used to control bacterial infections in humans and weeds and pests in agriculture are surpassing ‘planetary boundaries’ within which human civilization can continue to rely on these biocides.