• Learn About Pesticides in Foods
  • Link to SK Organic Resources
  • Learn to Keep Insects Out of your Crops
  • Grow a Lush Garden Organically
  • SNAP Display at Event
  • LIving Near Fields Increases Pesticide Exposure
  • SNAP Tour of Organic Vegetable Garden
  • Learn About Colony Collapse Disorder and How to Protect Bees
  • Learn To Manage Weeds Without Chemical Pesticides
  • Driving Near Recently Sprayed Fields Exposes People to Pesticides

Glyphosate (RoundUp)

(more on RoundUp at SNAP risk assessment page body burdensChildrenfood, Organics/Economy,  endocrine-disruptioneyeskidney body burden liver diseaseHealth/respiratoryhealth/cancerdigestive tractobesityreproductive healthnervous system effects and /Parkinson's,.Immune/Infections, immune/auto-immune, low dose effects,  Industry shenanigans, including /propaganda,  mammals, waterbee die-offExposure to PesticidesLegal/Litigation and legal/.litigation/Canada, Legislation/Regulatory/ USA, gmo pagewater/algae blooms, wildlife/endangered species,  Wildlife/amphibians, wildlife/aquatic organisms and insects,  insects, endangered speciesterrestrial invertebrateswatersoils. Forestry/Herbicides, safety, food 

Glyphosate testing

Study first to link weed killer Roundup to convulsions in animals   (Florida Atlantic University, 23 August, 2022)      'Results, published in Scientific Reports, showed that glyphosate and Roundup increased seizure-like behavior in soil-dwelling roundworms and provides significant evidence that glyphosate targets GABA-A receptors. These communication points are essential for locomotion and are heavily involved in regulating sleep and mood in humans. What truly sets this research apart is that it was done at significantly less levels than recommended by the EPA and those used in past studies.     "The concentration listed for best results on the Roundup Super Concentrate label is 0.98 percent glyphosate, which is about 5 tablespoons of Roundup in 1 gallon of water," said Naraine. "A significant finding from our study reveals that just 0.002 percent glyphosate, a difference of about 300 times less herbicide than the lowest concentration recommended for consumer use, had concerning effects on the nervous system."     "As of now, there is no information for how exposure to glyphosate and Roundup may affect humans diagnosed with epilepsy or other seizure disorders," said Dawson-Scully. "Our study indicates that there is significant disruption in locomotion and should prompt further vertebrate studies."'  see also New Evidence Shows Roundup Damages the Nervous System  (Beyond Pesticides, August 30, 2022) 

Glyphosate Weed Killer Crosses Blood-Brain Barrier, Linked to Alzheimer’s and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases   (Beyond Pesticides, August 4, 2022) An Arizona State University (ASU) study. 'The results confirm that glyphosate infiltrates brain tissue, elevating TNFα levels and soluble Aβ, causing cell death among exposed cortical neurons. The novel one-step glyphosate extraction method provides the first evidence of dose-dependent glyphosate accumulation in the brain. Moreover, the extraction method finds a small amount of AMPA in brain tissue, indicating glyphosate is also breaking down in the body. Therefore, glyphosate exposure has implications for neurodegenerative diseases like AD, resulting from elevated protein levels and expression.'

Four Out of Five People in U.S. Contaminated with Glyphosate (Beyond Pesticides, July 12, 2022) More than four out of five U.S. children and adults over the age of six have detectable levels of glyphosate in their bodies, according to data recently published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).     A total of 2,310 urine samples retained from studies conducted in 2013-2014 were analyzed by NHANES researchers for the presence of glyphosate. Participants included both children and adults above age six. Out of these samples, 1,885 (81.6%) contain glyphosate at or above the detection limit. 

U.S. EPA ordered to reassess glyphosate's impact on health, environment   (Jonathan Stempel, Reuters, June 17, 2022)  'The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was ordered by a federal appeals court on Friday to take a fresh look at whether glyphosate, the active ingredient in Bayer AG's Roundup weed killer, poses unreasonable risks to humans and the environment.   In a 3-0 decision, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals agreed with several environmental, farmworker and food-safety advocacy groups that the EPA did not adequately consider whether glyphosate causes cancer and threatens endangered species.   ...She also faulted aspects of the agency's approval process."  also see Supreme Court Permits Large Jury Verdicts on Roundup, Appeals Court Finds EPA Registration Unlawful  (Beyond Pesticides, June 22, 2022) 

Glyphosate Weed Killer Disrupts Bumblebees’ Nest Temperature, Leading to Colony Failure  (Beyond Pesticides, June 7, 2022) 'Bumblebee colonies exposed to low levels of the weed killer glyphosate are unable to adequately regulate nest temperature, imperiling the next generation of bumblebees and long-term colony growth and survival.' Most pesticide regulatory systems refuse to adequately account for sublethal impacts, including the US EPA and, I suspect, the PMRA.

How the ghouls of Monsanto influenced science and the media   (GM Watch, 04 May 2022)   Last week, the award-winning investigative journalist Paul Thacker gave a presentation at Carleton University on Monsanto’s ghostwriting to influence both science and media, detailing Monsanto’s ghostwriting campaign which kicked off in 2015 to attack the World Health Organization’s cancer agency, after it found glyphosate was a “probable carcinogen.”   A year after Monsanto began plotting their 2015 attack on IARC, the journal Critical Reviews in Toxicology (CRT) published a special issue titled “An Independent Review of the Carcinogenic Potential of Glyphosate.” But emails show Monsanto directed and edited the studies... In 2015, Monsanto secretly recruited scientists from HarvardCornell University and three other schools to write about the benefits of GMO technology. In the case of Harvard’s Calestous Juma, Monsanto suggested the topic and provided a summary and headline.' and a lot more with links.

Canfor ‘pest management’ consultation triggers stakeholders’ concerns about glyphosate herbicide  (BC story)   Canfor served notice to forest stakeholders on its five-year ‘pest management plan’ for harvested forest blocks around the Prince George region, but wouldn’t reveal which specific tracts of Crown land are being considered for glyphosate herbicide      (Fran Yanor - Local Journalism Initiative Reporter (The Rocky Mountain Goat) Nov 13, 2020)   '"Forestry management stipulates replanted forests must be 95 per cent conifer. Timber companies are responsible for replanted trees until they reach the ‘free-to-grow’ stage, when they can survive on their own. To speed growth of new conifers, glyphosate solutions are sprayed from planes across massive cut blocks to wipe out deciduous competition.   “It's not based on (ecological) science,” said Steidle. “It's based on the science of agriculture, an agricultural mindset to maximize yields.”    Mike Morris, Liberal MLA for Prince George-Mackenzie, has lived, hunted, fished and trapped in the Prince George Timber Supply Area (TSA) for upwards of 50 years. During that time, he’s seen dramatic effects from logging and spraying.    Forests in the northern interior naturally have a range of deciduous trees and plants, said Morris. “Glyphosate kills that and virtually eliminates all wildlife populations within the area being: sprayed,” said Morris. “It's pretty tragic.”'   SNAP Comment: Glyphosate mostly indirectly eliminates wildlife populations by eliminating their food sources.

Outcry grows as B.C. government agency plans widespread South Coast herbicide spray     The five-year Pest Management Plan, which covers Squamish to Hope, targets native hard woods and Indigenous medicines and food in efforts to increase lumber output. (by Charlie Carey, North Shore News, 24 march 2022)   'The proposed management plan would come into effect on April 1, 2022, and cover the Chilliwack and Sea to Sky Natural Resources District, including the traditional unceded territories of the Stó:lō, St’át’imc, Nlaka'pamux, xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), and Tsleil-Waututh First Nations. The proposed plan is for five years, ending in 2027.    While the notice was printed in the local newspaper in Hope, along with the draft proposal available online, it does not include a map of specified locations where herbicides such as glyphosatetriclopyr (Garlon, Release) and 2,4-D (Formula 40) will be used.    The management plan highlights cottonwood, red alder, salmonberry, red elderberry, devil’s club, thimbleberry, salal, fireweed, huckleberry and blueberry as plants which will be targeted by the proposal. All of which, Rose said, Indigenous people have used as medicines and food for thousands of years.“Our rush to get rid of these, so called, competing species is making our forests more vulnerable to wildfire,”'  SNAP Comment: and tht is how you turn a forest into a plantation...

New Brunswick   Legislative committee calls for more glyphosate restrictions, Greens want full ban   Committee recommends greater spray setbacks, asks N.B. Power to stop using herbicides  (Hadeel Ibrahim, , Nov 03, 2021)  Try as I may, I have been unable to get a link to the original report. 

10. THAT setbacks for aerial spraying be increased from 500 metres to 1 kilometre from dwellings.
11. THAT the government require a spraying setback of 100 metres from protected natural areas.
12. THAT the government require a minimum 100-metre aerial spraying setback from water and wetlands and/or require spray plans that may vary depending on the landscape and the hydrological characteristics of the land.
13. THAT the government ban spraying of pesticides in protected watersheds as designated under the Clean Water Act.
14. THAT the Minister of Natural Resources and Energy Development request of NB Power that it immediately begin phasing out spraying of pesticides under transmission lines.

EPA Overlooks Glyphosate and Roundup Ingredients’ Cancer, DNA Damage, and Multigenerational Effects  (Beyond Pesticides, March 10, 2022) 'Glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) like Roundup® induce DNA damage and alter biological mechanisms (gene regulatory microRNAs miRNAs or miRs) associated with cancer development. According to the study published in Toxicological SciencesDNA damage mainly occurs through oxidative stress from GBH exposure. Moreover, DNA damage and other biological mechanisms that cause carcinogenicity (cancer) occur at doses assumed “safe” by pesticide regulators such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).   These findings show that glyphosate and Roundup score positive in various tests of carcinogenicity... in a living animal (rat) that is accepted as a surrogate for human health effects. In my view, this strengthens the argument that exposure to Roundup herbicides can lead to the type of cancer suffered by the plaintiffs in many of the court cases – non-Hodgkin lymphoma.... For the first time, this study demonstrates epigenetic changes in DNA, proteins, and small RNA profiles in the liver of organisms exposed to glyphosate and Roundup formula MON 52276.'

Canadian Wheat Tests Positive for 3,162 ppb of Carcinogenic Glyphosate Weed Killer  ( Zen Honeycutt, Moms Across Americaa, 16 February 2022)   'Samples of wheat bran, whole wheat flour, and unbleached all-purpose flour from a Winnipeg supermarket. (first and second section of results) All were produced from Canadian wheat. The second set of samples (third chart)  are from a research project being done at a farm in Manitoba.   Considering that the CA EPA’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has determined a maximum daily intake level of 1100 ug per day, 2,266 ppb (equivalent to ug), as found in Canadian wheat tilled samples, is comparatively quite alarming. Feeding one’s baby a piece of toast or breakfast cereal with these levels of glyphosate is a disturbing idea, and one likely to lead to chronic health issues.' also tables and discussion of  health effects.'

SAFE FOOD MATTERS WINS GLYPHOSATE COURT CASE! (Safe food Matters, 2 February 2022)    The Federal Court of Appeal has issued a decision in favour of Safe Food Matters in a court case concerning the pesticide glyphosate. The decision remits the matter back to the Pest Management Regulatory Agency for reconsideration, and offers strong guidance to PMRA to avoid “the endless merry-go-round” of court applications and reconsiderations.  In 2017, Safe Food Matters (and others) filed objections to PMRA’s decision RVD2017-01 to re-register glyphosate in Canada, and PMRA rejected the objections in 2019 with a form letter and dismissive reasons. Safe Food Matters filed in Federal Court, lost, then appealed. The win means a review panel could still be struck to review RVD2017-01 and recommend that it be confirmed, reversed or varied.   Link to the Appeals court decision in link.

Glyphosate-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis facilitates male reproductive toxicity in rats (Sci Total Environ. 2022 Jan 20;805: Epub 2021 Sep 16,2021).   'Data showed that GLY(phosate)-exposed rats exhibited male reproductive dysfunction, evidenced by impaired testis architectural structure, reduced sperm motility, together with increased sperm malformation ratio....these findings uncover an underlying mechanistic scenario that gut microbiota dysbiosis-driven local IL-17A production is one reason responsible for male reproductive toxicity induced by GLY, which provides new insights into the male reproductive toxicity of GLY in mammals. '

Review Shows that Monsanto/Bayer Claims of Glyphosate Safety Not Supported by Credible Science     (Beyond Pesticides, December 21, 2021)  'A research team undertaking a review of industry-conducted glyphosate safety studies submitted to EU (European Union) regulators shows that most of the research fails to meet current international standards for scientific validity. The researchers find that of the 11 reviewed studies, which were submitted to regulators by Bayer AG (now owner of the Monsanto “Roundup” brand of glyphosate herbicide) and several other chemical companies, only two are scientifically “reliable”; six others are deemed “partly reliable,” and the remaining three, “not reliable.” ' The issue is that older studies rely on tests that are only 50% reliable for detecting cancer. 'In response to that July report, the former director of the U.S. National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), Linda Birnbaum, PhD, indicated that the problem of regulators accepting industry studies “at industry’s word” and simultaneously “ignoring red flags raised in non–industry funded research” is ongoing, according to The Guardian.'

Glyphosate Profile (Carex CanadaCAREX Canada   PESTICIDES – PROBABLE CARCINOGEN (IARC 2A)   (CARcinogen EXposure) is a multi-institution team of researchers and specialists with expertise in epidemiology, risk assessment, toxicology, geographic information systems, and knowledge mobilization. The purpose of CAREX Canada is to provide a body of knowledge about Canadians’ exposures to known and suspected carcinogens, in order to support organizations in prioritizing exposures and in developing targeted exposure reduction policies and programs. IARC Monograph on Glyphosate

EPA finds two widely used pesticides harm majority of endangered species (By Ashley Curtin, Nation of Change November 17, 2021) US story.   Atrazine and glyphosate are both causing severe harm to many of the plants and animals protected under the Endangered Species Act. “It’s no surprise that these chemical poisons are causing severe harm to imperiled wildlife since U.S. use exceeds 70 million pounds of atrazine and 300 million pounds of glyphosate every year,” Nathan Donley, environmental health science director at the Center for Biological Diversity, said.   SNAP Comment: While atrazine use is low in Saskatchewan (11 kg in 2003), likely because there was hardly any corn production at that time, glyphosate was the top selling herbicide in 2003 with over 9 million kgs sold (9/10th of total commercial sales based on 75% reporting). Note that atrazine is widely used in southern Ontario and Quebec at the very least.

Glyphosate Kills Microorganisms Beneficial to Plants, Animals, and Humans   (Beyond Pesticides, October 28, 2021) A study published in Frontiers in Environmental Science finds the popular herbicide glyphosate negatively affects microbial communities, indirectly influencing plant, animal, and human health. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate shifts microbial community composition, destroying beneficial microorganisms while preserving pathogenic organisms. 

Research Shows Adverse Impacts of Glyphosate on the Human Gut Microbiome   (Beyond Pesticides, April 30, 2021) A bioinformatics tool developed by researchers from the University of Turku in Finland indicates that “54% of species in the core human gut microbiome are sensitive to glyphosate.”  ...The researchers’ bioinformatic method categorizes EPSPS enzymes into four classes, each of which has a different sensitivity to glyphosate, with one of the four classes being particularly vulnerable.  In addition, the co-authors suggest that glyphosate may impact other metabolic pathways (beyond the Shikimate), positing that the mitochondria electron transport chain appears sensitive to the compound.

 Forestry Use of Glyphosate Reduces Fertility of Perennial Flowers and May Reduce Pollination     (Beyond Pesticides, June 22, 2021) 'Glyphosate herbicide use in forested areas persists in the environment for years and can prompt morphological changes in perennial flowers that reduce their fertility and may make them less attractive to pollinators. 

Glyphosate Raises Malaria Risk through Damage to Insect Immune Systems – New Study   (Sustainable Pulse, May 14 2021) with link to study.   'Melanin works in insect immunity essentially by trapping and killing an invading bacterium, fungal cell, or parasite. Melanin production rises in response to the infection, and in a process called melanization, melanin molecules surround the invading pathogen—while highly reactive molecules produced as part of the melanin-synthesis process, effectively destroy the invader. ...the researchers found that in A. gambiae mosquitoes, glyphosate inhibits melanin production and melanization, and thereby makes the mosquitoes more susceptible to infection by Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous species of malaria parasite. They found too that glyphosate alters the composition of the bacterial and fungal population in the mosquito midgut—the “gut microbiome” that, as in humans, helps regulate mosquito health.

Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Sustainable Agriculture Do Not Mix!   (Beyond Pesticides, April 29, 2021) 'Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are incompatible with sustainable agriculture goals, according to a recent scientific literature analysis by scientists at Tufts University, Massachusetts.  However, studies demonstrate glyphosate is the main contributor to human, biotic, and ecosystem harms as toxicities from herbicides are now double what it was in 2004.   The National Academy of Sciences identifies four goals of sustainable agriculture—productivity, economics, environment, and social well-being for future generations. However, pesticides like glyphosate are ubiquitous in the environment, putting the health, economy, and food/resources for future generations at risk.

The main ingredient in RoundUp doesn’t just kill plants. It harms beetles, too.    Glyphosate seems to interrupt a key symbiotic relationship in sawtooth grain beetles.   (Philip Kieffer, Popular Science, May 13, 2021)    'But sawtooth grain beetles rely on a symbiotic relationship with a particular type of (unnamed) bacteria to build their shells. That bacteria in turn uses the shikimate pathway to manufacture the raw building blocks the beetles need.  Glyphosate appears to kill off those partners. After exposure to the chemical, the beetles make softer, weaker shells. It doesn’t kill them outright, but it leaves them more vulnerable. “They are doing way worse,” Engl says. “Their cuticle is thinner, and this is creating a higher risk of desiccation and higher mortality.”    The sawtoothed grain beetle is a crop pest, but Engl says it’s a model for all kinds of other beetles, which constitute about a quarter of all known animal species. “The beetle is generally used by us to understand the associations between insects, their microbial partners, and their ecological importance, so it’s a proxy for many insects,” Engl says.'

Endangered Florida Manatees Contaminated with Glyphosate/Roundup Due to Widespread Use   (Beyond Pesticides, March 30, 2021) Florida manatees are experiencing chronic glyphosate exposure that is likely to impact their immune system and make them more susceptible to other environmental stressors such as red tide and cold stress... Results found glyphosate in the bodies of 55.8% of Florida manatee samples. Most concerning, the amount of pesticide increased in a straight line over the course of the study.  Authors of the study indicate that it is appropriate to consider glyphosate a “pseudo-persistent” pollutant, “in which new applications of the herbicide replace the molecules that are being removed,” the study reads.'

Implications for Human Health: Glyphosate-Related Soil Erosion Re-Releases Toxic Pesticides from Soil   French West Indies study.  (Beyond Pesticides, March 4, 2021) A new study finds glyphosate use stimulates soil erosion responsible for releasing banned, toxic pesticide chlordecone (Kepone), which was used in banana production. ... Researchers note, “Chlordecone fluxes drastically increased when glyphosate use began, leading to widespread ecosystem contamination. As glyphosate is used globally, ecotoxicological risk management strategies should consider how its application affects persistent pesticide storage in soils, transfer dynamics, and widespread contamination.” Conventional pesticide use contaminates soil and their respective Critical Zone (CZ) compartments.  SNAP Comment: I wonder how many other chemicals it might release through erosion... However, there was a lot more soil drifting in SK before chem fallowing with Roundup.

Economic Impact of Glyphosate Contamination on Organic Production in Saskatchewan (COTA Organic summit, November 18. 2019)

  1. 26% producers had an unintended contact with glyphosate incident on their farm
  2. 46% of respondents had to take land out of production
  3. 20% of respondents lost a sale
  4. 52% of respondents reported a financial loss
  5. 20 % of exporters had loads rejected by buyer that had passed glyphosate residue testing before it left Saskatchewan.

Glyphosate and Other Weed Killers Create Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Agricultural Soils   (Beyond Pesticides, February 24, 2021) 'Soil sprayed with weedkillers glyphosateglufosinate, or dicamba are likely to contain higher amounts of antibiotic resistant bacteria, according to research published earlier this month in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution. Each year in the United States, at least 2 million people develop an antibiotic resistant infection, and over 23,000 die. Authors of the study say widespread herbicide use is likely playing a role. “Our results suggest that the use of herbicides could indirectly drive antibiotic resistance evolution in agricultural soil microbiomes, which are repeatedly exposed to herbicides during weed control,” said Ville Friman, PhD of the University of York in the United Kingdom.   Contrary to the pesticide industry’s claim that these chemicals break down quickly and become inert by binding to soil particles, large proportions of the herbicides remained in the soil at the end of the 60-day experiment, stemming back from the first application. For glyphosate 18% remained, glufosinate 21%, and dicamba 34%.  .. scientists determined that herbicide exposure triggers evolutionary pressures on bacteria similar to those exposed to antibiotics...  “Interestingly, antibiotic resistance genes were favoured at herbicide concentrations that were not lethal to bacteria,” said Dr. Friman. “This shows that already very low levels of herbicides could significantly change the genetic composition of soil bacterial populations. Such effects are currently missed by ecotoxicological risk assessments, which do not consider evolutionary consequences of prolonged chemical application at the level of microbial communities.”    'The field '(s)amples matched up closely to the results of the microcosm experiment:'

In Cahoots with Pesticide Industry, Former U.S. Officials Try to Stop Mexico from Banning Glyphosate, But Fail  (Beyond Pesticides, February 17, 2021) 'New details are emerging around the pressure campaign Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador and his administration withstood as the country moved towards banning Bayer/Monsanto’s glyphosate (Roundup) herbicide. According to documents obtained by a Freedom of Information Act request and published in the Guardian, U.S. Trade Representative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) worked in coordination with Bayer/Monsanto and the agrichemical industry umbrella group Croplife America to stop the Mexican government from embracing a precautionary approach to pesticide regulation. While the Trump administration and its collaborators were successful in a similar campaign against Thailand, there are no indications that Mexico will rescind its final decision to ban glyphosate, made at the end of last year.' 

Long-Term Roundup Exposure Found to Harm Keystone Wildlife Species   (Beyond Pesticides, January 6, 2021)  “The problem is that much of the evidence is rooted in outdated toxicity tests which only look at the number of animals that die on exposure to extremely high concentrations of these chemicals,” Dr. Orsini said. “These tests also overlook the pathological effects arising from long-term exposure to low doses. What we’re proposing is that toxicity is measured by looking at what happens to the animal at a molecular and fitness level following long-term exposure, which encompasses the entire animal life cycle.”   Changes in fitness were seen for every trait except mortality. Roundup delayed average age of sexual/reproductive maturity, reduced size at maturity, decreased the total number of offspring produced, and increased developmental failure – as determined by the number of aborted eggs, and juveniles borne dead..  Researchers also observed damage to DNA, with glyphosate and Roundup showing only slight differences in affected pathways      Roundup and glyphosate were also found to indirectly alter both the makeup and total number of microbiota in the water flea’s gut. These changes were correlated with alterations to the way fat and carbon are metabolized, as well as the animal’s detoxification pathways.

Ubiquitous Herbicide Glyphosate/Roundup Threatens Nearly All Endangered Species, Says EPA   (Beyond Pesticides, December 4, 2020) From the 'release of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) draft biological evaluation (BE) of glyphosate. The assessment indicates that use of this ubiquitous herbicide likely threatens nearly every animal and plant species on the U.S. list of threatened and endangered species — 93% of them, in fact. “No NE (No Effect) determinations were made for any species or designated critical habitats; therefore, all species received a MA ( May Affect) determination.” Thus, all species and habitats underwent the second step: NLAA (Not Likely to Adversely Affect) determinations were made for 119 species and 33 species’ critical habitats, and LAA (Likely to Adversely Affect) determinations were made for 1,676 species and 759 critical habitats. For the LAAs, 96% of species and 97% of habitats had moderate evidence; strongest evidence was found for less than 1% of both species and habitats; and weakest evidence was found for 4% of species and 3% of critical habitats. The review (of glyphosate) began in 2009, has already taken 11 years, without a full assessment of the widespread harmful impacts on people and the environment in that time period.” More specifically, plaintiffs charged EPA with bias, ignoring and using incomplete scientific data, and delay in finishing “any assessment of glyphosate’s impacts on thousands of potentially harmed endangered species, delaying it until a future decision.”  As of the January 2020 interim decision, what remained to be completed before a final reregistration decision were evaluations of (1) the risks of glyphosate exposure to endangered species, and (2) screenings for endocrine system impacts. This biological evaluation goes to the first of those outstanding items.

Aminomethylphosphonic acid alters amphibian embryonic development at environmental concentrations  (Environmental Research, Volume 190, November 2020, MarionCheron,FrançoisBrischoux)   Environmentally relevant concentrations of AMPA (the main metabolite of glyphosate) have been found to affect embryonic survival, development duration and hatchling morphology in spined toads. Non-linear concentration response patterns were likely to occur at low concentrations, meaning that the effect did not increase with the dose – greater effects were found at low concentrations of AMPA than higher levels. The study concluded that regulatory decision-making needs to go beyond the use of high-dose studies to identify official no-effect concentrations.'     'Our experimental concentrations of AMPA were 100–6000 times lower than official Predicted-No-Effect-Concentrations. We found that these low-level concentrations of AMPA decreased embryonic survival, increased development duration and influenced hatchling morphology.'

Glyphosate in chicken poop used as fertilizer is hurting food production, researchers say   (US Right to Know, September 9, 2020 by Carey Gillam) '  Because there are glyphosate residues in human and animal food, detectable glyphosate levels are commonly found in human urine and animal manure.  'These glyphosate residues in fertilizer are a problem for growers for many reasons, according to the Finland researchers. “We found that poultry manure can accumulate high residues of (glyphosate-based herbicides), decrease plant growth and reproduction, and thus inhibit the growth-promoting effects of manure when applied as fertilizer,” the paper states. “These results demonstrate that the residues pass through the digestive process of birds, and more importantly, they persist in the manure fertilizer over long periods.” The researchers said the glyphosate residues can persist in ecological systems, affecting several non-target organisms over many years.'

Facts and Fallacies in the Debate on Glyphosate Toxicity (Robin Mesnage and Michael N. Antoniou, Frontiers in Public Health, Perspective, 24 November 2017)    'Thus, the mechanisms and vast range of conditions proposed to result from glyphosate toxicity presented by Samsel and Seneff in their commentaries are at best unsubstantiated theories, speculations, or simply incorrect. This misrepresentation of glyphosate’s toxicity misleads the public, the scientific community, and regulators. Although evidence exists that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic below regulatory set safety limits, the arguments of Samsel and Seneff largely serve to distract rather than to give a rational direction to much needed future research investigating the toxicity of these pesticides, especially at levels of ingestion that are typical for human populations.'    SNAP Comment: Hopefully the studies recommended here will be condicted to enlighten the debate.

Study Shows Organic Food Diet Reduces Residues of Glyphosate in Body   (Beyond Pesticides, August 13, 2020) 'Levels of the notorious herbicide compound glyphosate in the human body are reduced by 70% through a one-week switch to an organic diet.'

Glyphosate in Roundup Linked to Parkinson’s Disease (Beyond Pesticides, May 15, 2020) The ubiquity of glyphosate use in agriculture — which leaves residues of the toxic chemical in food — may mean that exposures to it represent a significant risk factor for the disease. Glyphosate is already implicated or proved in the development of numerous health anomalies, including cancer.  They found that exposures to glyphosate in adult mice intensified a type of neurotoxicity associated with PD. The abstract for the research paper, titled “Glyphosate exposure exacerbates the dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the mouse brain after repeated administration of MTPT,” is available online; once published, the paper will be available through Science Direct.   The researchers found that the exposures to glyphosate exacerbated the reduction of DAT (dopamine transporter) immunoreactivity in the striatum, and the reduction of TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) positive cells in the SNr after MPTP administration. Translation: the exposure to glyphosate appears both to worsen the ability of local neurons (in the SNr and striatum) to produce and transport dopamine effectively, and to intensify the neurotoxicity of other extrinsic chemicals (in this case, MPTP).

Glyphosate and Roundup proven to disrupt gut microbiome by inhibiting shikimate pathway (GM Watch, 11 December 2019) 'The study found certain adverse effects at all doses tested, disproving regulators' assumptions that these levels have no adverse effects.' SNAP Comment: Note the huge variation in study dosage, based on regulatory acceptable levels. Clearly, glyphosate and Roundup are not 'safe' at levels considered acceptable daily intake or 'no adverse effects'. Interesting that in most pesticide studies there are liver and/or kidney effects. After all, these organs are two of the main detoxification organs in the body. The issue with our 'dose makes the poison' based regulatory system is that we then divide the dose causing problems by 1000 or something then assume it's OK at that level. This is clearly 'baloney'. 'However, proof that glyphosate herbicides can inhibit the EPSPS enzyme and the shikimate pathway in gut bacteria has been lacking. But a new study has proven beyond doubt that this does indeed happen. The study in rats has found that Roundup herbicide and its active ingredient glyphosate cause a dramatic increase in the levels of two substances, shikimic acid and 3-dehydroshikimic acid, in the gut, which are a direct indication that the EPSPS enzyme of the shikimic acid pathway has been severely inhibited. In addition, the researchers found that both Roundup and glyphosate affected the microbiome at all dose levels tested, causing shifts in bacterial populations. For the study, female rats (12 per group) were fed a daily dose of either glyphosate or a Roundup formulation approved in Europe, called MON 52276Glyphosate and Roundup were administered via drinking water to give a glyphosate daily intake of 0.5 mg, 50 mg and 175 mg/kg body weight per day (mg/kg bw/day), which respectively represent the EU acceptable daily intake (ADI), the EU no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), and the US NOAEL.' 'The study also revealed that Roundup, and to a lesser extent glyphosate, damaged the liver and kidneys of the rats, even over the relatively short study period of 90 days' .with little reflected in the blood biochemistry. 'Histopathological (microscopic) examination of the liver showed that the two higher doses of Roundup caused a statistically significant and dose-dependent increase in lesions, fatty liver disease changes, and necrosis (death of tissue). In contrast, none of the control animals showed the same liver effects.'

Glyphosate decreases mycorrhizal colonization and affects plant-soil feedback (Marjo Helander et al, Science of The Total Environment,Volume 642, 15 November 2018, Pages 285-291)  Highlights

  • In northern ecosystems glyphosate residues are detected in crop plants the following growing season.
  •  Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization is decreased in glyphosate treated plants.
  • The magnitude of mycorrhizal reduction is dependent on tilling and soil history.

The Pesticide Generation   Children on the Front Line  (Webdoc.France24.com,original FRANCE 24 multimedia documentary has been translated from the original in French, 2019)  A court case against glyphosate and what is happening in France about banning glyphosate. "The medical community is unambiguous: Théo’s malformations are not genetic, but definitely linked to an external factor. “Right from birth, Théo’s doctors pointed a finger at pesticides,” says Sabine, who at the time didn’t make an immediate connection to the weed killer that she used at home to spray the horse paddock. “The wake-up call came later,” she remembers. In August 2008, to be precise. Just as she did every year at the same time, Sabine treated the area with Glyper, a herbicide containing glyphosate. “It suddenly hit me; I remembered what the surgeon had told me about pesticides.” Due to the teratogenic risks of glyphosate causing malformation of embryos and foetal abnormalities cited in scientific studies, doctors say the link to Théo’s birth defects is “highly likely”. “I was exposed to glyphosate at a crucial moment in my pregnancy – during the first four weeks,” she says. “I didn’t even know I was pregnant, so I didn’t take any particular precautions.'

New study finds glyphosate causes disease across several generations   (The Organic and non-GMO Report, May 2, 2019)    "But writing in the journal Scientific Reports, the researchers say they saw “dramatic increases” in several pathologies affecting the second and third generations. The second generation had “significant increases” in testis, ovary, and mammary gland diseases, as well as obesity. In third-generation males, the researchers saw a 30 percent increase in prostate disease—three times that of a control population. The third generation of females had a 40 percent increase in kidney disease, or four times that of the controls.  More than one-third of the second-generation mothers had unsuccessful pregnancies, with most of those affected dying. Two out of five males and females in the third generation were obese."

Health and Environmental Groups Call on EPA to Revoke Glyphosate’s Registration  (Beyond Pesticides, September 4, 2019) Sixteen organizations representing health, environmental, farmer, and farmworker communities joined together yesterday to call on EPA to remove glyphosate from the marketplace. The groups cite a combination of high-profile lawsuits, environmental impacts, increasing reports of weed resistance, and growing public concern over the health effects of glyphosate in their comments on EPA’s interim reregistration review decision for the chemical. The comments warn that EPA is at risk of damaging the public’s trust in the agency’s review process for toxic pesticides. The article also ' replies to EPA’s attacks against the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Unique Hair Testing Project Reveals High Levels of Glyphosate in Members of the Japanese Parliament (Sustainable Pulse, Aug 29 2019)   'The Detox Project’s Director, Henry Rowlands, stated Thursday; “This unique testing project was made possible by the development of new hair testing methods that have enabled our long-term exposure to pesticides to be identified for the first time. Urine and blood testing only give us a very short-term picture of exposure, whereas hair testing gives us the real and full picture of what we have been exposed to over the long-term and thus what we need to avoid.”'  'From the 28 hair samples taken 75% of them tested positive for long-term pesticide exposure, with a total of 14 pesticides being detected.'   'The pesticides detected included Cyprodinil, Fipronil Sulfone, Iprovalicarb, Metolachlor, Propiconazole, Pyraclostrobin, Spiroxamine, Tebuconazole, Tetramethrin, Transfluthrin, Trifloxystrobin, Glyphosate, AMPA, Glufosinate.' out of 60 tested for. 'Four of those pesticides were found in over 10% of the samplesTebuconazole ( a fungicide) – 10.7%, Transfluthrin (an insecticide) – 14.3 %, Glyphosate (a herbicide) – 32.1%, AMPA (the main metabolite of glyphosate) – 53.6%'   'The results for glyphosate and AMPA included regular levels of over 33 and 166 ppb respectively with the highest results of 791 ppb for glyphosate and 1205 ppb for AMPA.'  ''The Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries reported that 90% of U.S. wheat imports and an even higher % of Canadian wheat imports contain glyphosate residues, mainly due to the practice of pre-harvest spraying'

Glyphosate: Destructor of Human Health and Biodiversity   Another Silent Killer (Compiled by Rosemary Mason MB ChB FRCA with information from a global network of independent scientists, toxicologists, beekeepers, environmentalists, Governments, Industry and Regulators)   Article received by Tony Mitra from Dr. Rosemary Mason of UK. He says: "The article is available on Academia.edu for free for members. I am not a member, but got a free copy from her. I decided to include this 53 page pdf document as a downloadable file for anyone interested on my site.

Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure during pregnancy and lactation malprograms the male reproductive morphofunction in F1 offspring   (Jakeline Liara Teleken et al, Published online by Cambridge University Press: 16 July 2019)   'data indicate that maternal exposure to glyphosate-ROUNDUP® during pregnancy and lactation may lead to decreased spermatogenesis and disruptions in hypothalamus–pituitary–testicular axis regulation in F1 offspring.' Link to scientific study abstract and references. 

Don Huber - Glyphosate - Dangers and Soil Remediation (Global Earth Repair conference, May 9, 2019)  Don Huber goes through all the dangers of this defoliant and toxin, why it is so deadly, and how to remove it from bodies and from soil Thank you for your work, Don!!   Over 1 hour video well worth watching. As usual, Huber presents  lots of studies in many fields. Widespread use and history of use, as well EPA 'acceptable levels' in foods being much higher than the levels observed to cause health issue in the lab and in real life. Interesting that when glyphosate replaces glycine in proteins, it causes proteins to fold wrong and adopt a shape characteristic of prion diseases like mad cow diseaseGlyphosate is antibiotic against the good bacteria but, unfortunately, the bad ones (Salamonella.E coli, Clostridium, etc) are resistant. Also presents studies indicating that supplementing bees in areas of severe bee hive loss with water containing minerals and some probiotics can reduce the hive loss from 40%/year to .05%. Part of the solution for livestock diseases is to buy clean feed and supplement minerals. Lots of data from many sources build the case against glyphosate.

Roundup’s Risks Could Go Well Beyond Cancer   Evidence of the cheap herbicide’s danger to biological functions and the environment continues to mount. Why are U.S. regulators not listening?  (By Mark Buchanan, Bloomberg Opinion, June 4, 2019)  'Both the EPA and the EFSA relied on information provided by researchers linked to the industry and considered studies provided by the industry that were not peer-reviewed or made public. The IARC relied solely on publicly available peer-reviewed research.'  ' In both the U.S. and Europe, the supposedly safe limits for human ingestion are based on long-outdated science. Research also points to serious adverse consequences for the environment, and there are indications glyphosate can cause disease in mammals even several generations removed from the initial exposure.'   SNAP comment: The article does not answer its question other than pointing out the narrow scope of studies which regulatory agencies evaluate. I can add the mandatory 'risk-benefit assessment' where use is considered a benefit and need and trumps any negative health and environmental effects. This, in my view, is 'long outdated science', as well as the belief that there is a 'safe' dose at which there is no effect, and the unscientific way this is calculated. 

Assessment of Glyphosate Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Pathologies and Sperm Epimutations: Generational Toxicology (Scientific Reports | (2019) 9:6372   scientific paper. 'Therefore, we propo