• Driving Near Recently Sprayed Fields Exposes People to Pesticides
  • Link to SK Organic Resources
  • Weeds Can Be Managed Without Chemical Pesticides
  • Grow a Lush Garden Organically
  • SNAP Tour of Organic Vegetable Garden
  • Learn to Manage Pests Naturally
  • Learn About Pesticides in Foods
  • Learn To Manage Weeds Without Chemical Pesticides
  • SNAP Display at Event
  • Learn to Keep Insects Out of your Crops


also see wildlife/ amphibians and insects, reproductive health

Tyrone Hayes official site. Tyrone Hayes (University of California- Berkeley) has been hammered by Syngenta after he found that the herbicide had drastic effect on feminizing frogs. 

Tyrone has done many presentations on his research on atrazine. The latest is: Endocrine disruption, environmental justice, and the ivory tower | Tyrone Hayes | TEDxBerkeley (March 8, 2018)

Tyrone also gave many talks at Beyond Pesticides conferences such as 14 Keynote: Tyrone Hayes, PhD: Protecting Life, From Frogs to the Human Family (March 2018)

also see Reproductive Health

page updated 6 August 2019

NFU comments on Special Review of atrazine February 12, 2016

Atrazine Found to Harm Marsupial Health    (Beyond Pesticides, August 12, 2020) 'The herbicide atrazine can interfere with the health and reproduction of marsupials (including kangaroos and opossums) kangaroo, Virginia opossum, according to research published in the journal Reproduction, Fertility, and Development.  Researchers found changes to the gene expression necessary for basic function of the testis, and a significant reduction in phallus length. “These results demonstrate that atrazine exposure during gestation and lactation can significantly affect the development of male young by affecting virilization,” the authors write.' The doses  were slightly higher than real world models,   'Worse yet, EPA is set to reregister atrazine for another 15 years of hazardous use.'    SNAP Comment: There are still 12 atrazine registered products in Canada as of 6 September 2020.While there are no opossums in Saskatchewan,there are some in other parts of Canada.

Toxic Herbicide Atrazine Causes Wasp Gut Microbiome to Develop Pesticide Resistance Across Generations  (Beyond Pesticides, February 11, 2020)   This study not only represents one of the first evolutionary studies on symbiont-mediated pesticide resistance, it also provides fodder for future research regarding the implications of exposure to xenobiotics (i.e., chemical substances like toxic pesticides foreign to an organism or ecosystem) for other gut bacteria hosts – such as honey bees and humans. Early generations of wasps in the study received a field-realistic dose of atrazine (300 ppb) or a subtoxic dose (30 ppb); exposed individuals showed a gut flora composition significantly different from the control group. The shift in microbiome composition persists across subsequent generations.   After the 8th generation of sublethal dosing, there was a significant increase in tolerance to atrazine. LC50 increased in later generations of the atrazine-exposed population, indicating pesticide resistance. The paper reads, “Our study is one of the few cases to experimentally evolve cooperation between a host animal and rare members of the microbiome to derive new fitness traits within the population.”   Even when wasps are switched to an atrazine-free diet for six generations, the bacterial composition was similar to that of the exposed parents. Overall, researchers observed an increase in microbiota diversity and bacterial load.'