• Learn To Manage Weeds Without Chemical Pesticides
  • Driving Near Recently Sprayed Fields Exposes People to Pesticides
  • Grow a Lush Garden Organically
  • Learn About Pesticides in Foods
  • SNAP Display at Event
  • Learn to Keep Insects Out of your Crops
  • Weeds Can Be Managed Without Chemical Pesticides
  • SNAP Tour of Organic Vegetable Garden
  • LIving Near Fields Increases Pesticide Exposure
  • Learn About Colony Collapse Disorder and How to Protect Bees

Nervous System Effects

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

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Pregnant Mothers Exposed to Insecticides More Likely to Have Children Who Develop ADHD   (Beyond Pesticides, July 11, 2019) '  The pesticides investigated by researchers were breakdown products of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos, and the synthetic pyrethroid class of insecticides. The residue of these chemicals are frequently detected on conventional, industrially farmed food products. Although chlorpyrifos is banned from residential use in the U.S., most household bug sprays such as RAID contain high amounts of synthetic pyrethroids.  Among the 948 pregnant Danish women tested, 90% had some level of chlorpyrifos metabolites (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) detected in their urine, and 94% were positive for the generic pyrethroid metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid). Concentrations of both chlorpyrifos and pyrethroid breakdown products in maternal urine samples above the median detection rate for the study corresponded with a 98% increase in odds of their children having ADHD scores in the 90th percentile, a strong predictor for an ADHD diagnosis.

Pyrethroid Pesticide Use Increases Rates of ADHD in Adolescent Boys in New Study (Beyond Pesticides June 4, 2015). "Boys with detectable urinary 3-PBA, a biomarker of exposure to pyrethroids, are three times as likely to have ADHD compared with those without detectable 3-PBA. Hyperactivity and impulsivity increased by 50 percent for every 10-fold increase in 3-PBA levels in boys". The use of pyrethroids has also "been linked to learning problems, and adverse behavioral and emotional development in children". 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Pesticides. Maryse F. Bouchard et al , Pediatrics; originally published online May 17, 2010. Children with more organophosphates marker in their urine (especially dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP)) were more likely to be diagnosed as having ADHD. These findings support the hypothesis that organophosphate exposure, at levels common among US children, may contribute to ADHD prevalence.

Autism and Developmental Delays in Children

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see also autismchlorpyrifos 

Insecticide Chlorpyrifos Interacts with Genes to Increase Autism Risk, Research Finds   (Beyond Pesticides, July 20, 2021) 'Chlorpyrifos exposure results in the expression of genetic mutations associated with autism spectrum disorder in a laboratory model, finds research published in Environmental Health Perspectives by scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health....Organoids were exposed to chlorpyrifos at four and eight weeks of development, representing a short term, high exposure scenario. “High-dose, short-term experimental exposures do not reflect the real-life situation, but they give us a starting point to identify genetic variants that might make individuals more susceptible to toxicants,” says Dr. Smirnova.'

Environmental toxicants and autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review    (D A Rossignol et al, Transl Psychiatry. 2014 Feb; 4(2): e360)  link to full study. I am only reportign the pesticide data here.  re: gestational exposure: "This model identified two peaks of developmental vulnerability, one that extended from 38 days before fertilization to 163 days following fertilization and a second postnatal peak ranging from 346 to 529 days post fertilization."  Exposure to organochlorine pesticides (specifically dicofol and endosulfan) and the organophosphates in general and the insecticide chlorpyrifos in particular were linked to development of autism spectrum disorder. '... re: childhood exposure: the evidence linking pesticide exposure in ASD does not appear as strong during childhood as during the gestational period particularly because there are fewer studies examining this factor during childhood; therefore, additional studies are warranted.'

Prenatal and infant exposure to ambient pesticides and autism spectrum disorder in children: population based case-control study  (Ondine S von Ehrenstein et al, BMJ, 20 March 2019)  11 high use pesticides were selected for examination. Risk of autism spectrum disorder was associated with prenatal exposure to glyphosate, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion, avermectin, and permethrin. For autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability, estimated odds ratios were higher (by about 30%) for prenatal exposure to glyphosate, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, permethrin, methyl bromide, and myclobutanil; exposure in the first year of life increased the odds for the disorder with comorbid intellectual disability by up to 50% for some pesticide substances. Also see Autism Linked to Wide Range of Commonly Used Pesticides (Beyond Pesticides, March 27, 2019)  for more in depth analaysis.

Aerial Mosquito Spraying Linked to Elevated Autism Rates  (Beyond Pesticides, June 15, 2017) Communities exposed to frequent aerial spraying for mosquito control experience elevated rates of autism diagnoses, according to new research. The study identifies the frequent use of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, which are linked to neurocognitive and behavioral impacts, among other health effects...The study finds that the zip codes with frequent aerial pyrethroid exposure are 37% more likely to have higher rates of childhood developmental delays and autism spectrum disorder. The researchers acknowledge that the study establishes a correlational, not a causal, link between pyrethroid exposure and autism/developmental disorders, it adds to a growing body of research demonstrating an exposure-effect relationship between the two.

Banned Chemicals Linked to Increased Autism Risk (Beyond Pesticides, August 24, 2016) Researchers at Drexel University report that higher levels of some organochlorine compounds during pregnancy are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). The organochlorine compounds under study have long been banned in the U.S., and include pesticides like DDT, underscoring how pervasive and persistent these chemicals are, and their continued impact on human health. The research is reported in the study Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations in Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Samples: Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability, 

Autism risk higher near pesticide-treated fields, study says Exposure of pregnant women to organophosphates and also for the first time to pyrethroids linked to autism risk. The study also reported an increased risk of developmental delays, but not autism, in kids whose moms lived near fields where carbamates, including methomyl and Sevin, were applied. Good review of autism risks to put those in perspective. June 23, 2014 

Autism Explained: Synergistic Poisoning from Aluminum and Glyphosate - Stephanie Seneff. Video (2 hours 8 minutes) May 28, 2014

Brain Damage

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Childhoods lost: disabilities and seizures blight India's endosulfan victims (The Guardian, 15 February 2017)  Likely over 5000 children affected. Endosulfan is an acutely toxic organochlorine insecticide. SNAP Comment: Well, this is not only a Kerala. India problem. where it was aerially sprayed on the cashew crop. 14 Endosulfan formulations were historically registered in Canada and two, THIONEX EC (ENDOSULFAN) COMMERCIAL INSECTICIDE and THIONEX 50W WSP WETTABLE POWDER INSECTICIDE were still legally sold until the end of 2016. This means they may still be in use because the Pesticide Act and regulations control sales, not use. I am sure there have been health effects but, until recently, the PMRA did not collect them or consider them in pesticide registration. The system currently set up only requires manufacturers (not MDs) to disclose pesticide health effects. To report a pesticide 'incident' or check go to adverse effects reporting 

Study Reveals: Organophosphate Pesticides Cause Lasting Damage to Brain and Nervous System (Beyond Pesticides, December 10, 2012)   Low-level exposure had significant detrimental effect on working memory and information processing

Pesticides may damage brain     (October 24, 2008. sources: Globe and MailPANNA) Children are especially at risk. Pesticides that could be damaging included organophosphates (OPs), carbamatespyrethroidsethylenebisdithiocarbamates and chlorophenoxy herbicides (such as 2,4-Dmecoprop and dicamba commonly used on lawns)

 Pesticide Exposure Damages Nervous System, Brain and gastro-intestinal tract .(July 2006)

Brain Inflammation

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Inhaled Pollutants May Inflame More Than the Lungs (2010)  

(By Janet Raloff, Science News, Web edition: May 7, 2010, Print edition: May 22, 2010; Vol.177 #11 (p. 16)) 

Scientists have known that air pollution can impair airways and blood vessels. The emerging surprise is what it might do to the brain. Increasingly, studies have been highlighting inflammation-provoking nanopollutants as a potential source of nerve cell damage. PAULE's NOTE: Research into Multiple Chemical Sensitivities has long indicated that pollutants crossed the blood-brain barrier. It has also shown through SPECT and other brain scans that areas of the brain can shut down upon exposure to substances one is sensitive to, In other words, blood circulation to the brain would be shut down or reduced for hours at a time. Research in nano-particles has recently shown that they are small enough to enter cells. In the meantime, other research indicated that it's not only the size of a particle that is important but also what it is. Pesticide applications often produce very small particles in the nano-particle range. Nothing surprising for those of us who have MCS and have been following the research. I am however horrified to see these measurable effects widespread to all children exposed to polluted air. Full article:  http://www.sciencenews.org/view/feature/id/58906/title/Destination_brain. Information accessible to paid subscribers only.Try accessing a library. 


Parkinson's Disease

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see also Exposure to Pesticides linked to ALS (Beyond Pesticides, May 16, 2016), pesticides in food, Loss of Smell , Low Dose and glyphosate

Vineyard Pesticides Linked to Parkinson’s    (Beyond Pesticides, June 30, 2021) 'Vineyard farmers who spend more money on pesticide use are more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease, according to research published by French scientists in the journal Environmental Research. With Parkinson’s disease on the rise around the world, and emerging evidence growing for a Parkinson’s pandemic, it is critically important to suss out the factors at play... Parkinson’s disease incidence is 16% higher. No connections were found for other cropping systems...  Although vineyards account for only 3% of French land, 20% of pesticides purchased are for vineyards. Among the pesticides used, 80% are fungicides.'

Implications for Human Health: Chronic Inhalation of Paraquat in Low-Doses Disrupts Sense of Smell  SNAP Comment: As of 9 March 3021, the PMRA still lists 3  paraquat labels as being registered in Canada. The commercial product is Gramoxone 200 SL        (Beyond Pesticides, February 18, 2021) 'New research published in the journal Toxicological Sciences finds extended inhalation of the common herbicide paraquat causes male mice to lose some sense of smell, even at low doses. This study highlights the significance of understanding how specific chemical exposure routes can influence disease development. Olfactory (relating to the sense of smell) impairment is a precursory feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD), and studies connect paraquat poisoning to PD risk.'

Pesticide Exposure Increases the Risk of Developing Gene-Specific and Sporadic Parkinson’s Disease Incidences(Beyond Pesticides, November 5, 2020) Research at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) finds that pesticide exposure increases the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD), regardless of whether disease onset is idiopathic (spontaneous) or genetic (GBA genetic risk variant). Although the exact etiology of PD remains unknown, epidemiological and toxicological research repeatedly identifies exposure to pesticides, as well as specific gene-pesticide interactions, as significant adverse risk factors that contribute to PD. Furthermore, this study, “Gene Variants May Affect PD Risk After Pesticide Exposure,” suggests that environmental triggers like occupational exposure to pesticides can prompt PD in individuals with or without the genetic precursor.

Glyphosate in Roundup Linked to Parkinson’s Disease (Beyond Pesticides, May 15, 2020) The ubiquity of glyphosate use in agriculture — which leaves residues of the toxic chemical in food — may mean that exposures to it represent a significant risk factor for the disease. Glyphosate is already implicated or proved in the development of numerous health anomalies, including cancer.  They found that exposures to glyphosate in adult mice intensified a type of neurotoxicity associated with PD. The abstract for the research paper, titled “Glyphosate exposure exacerbates the dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the mouse brain after repeated administration of MTPT,” is available online; once published, the paper will be available through Science Direct.   The researchers found that the exposures to glyphosate exacerbated the reduction of DAT (dopamine transporter) immunoreactivity in the striatum, and the reduction of TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) positive cells in the SNr after MPTP administration. Translation: the exposure to glyphosate appears both to worsen the ability of local neurons (in the SNr and striatum) to produce and transport dopamine effectively, and to intensify the neurotoxicity of other extrinsic chemicals (in this case, MPTP).

Despite Damning Scientific Evidence, EPA Dismisses Link Between Parkinson’s and Exposure to the Herbicide Paraquat  (Beyond Pesticides, October 17, 2019)    'In response to this growing body of literature, EPA conducted an epidemiological evaluation of published studies on the link between paraquat and Parkinson’s. But, in a similar manner to how the agency conducted its epidemiological evaluation of pyrethroidsEPA made broad statements dismissing scientific evidence as insufficient...  On the link between paraquat and Parkinson’s, “The data is overwhelming” said Samuel M. Goldman, MD, an epidemiologist in the San Francisco Veterans Affairs health system to the New York Times. “I’m not a farmer, I don’t need to kill weeds, but I have to believe there are less dangerous options out there.”   An EPA environmental review conducted as part of the reregistration process found evidence of significant reproductive harm to small mammals, and determined that songbirds may be exposed to levels well beyond lethal concentrations known to cause death. Threats to mammals and songbirds are particularly concerning in light of significant declines in these animal groups.'   SNAP Comment: There are still 3 paraquat products registered by Syngenta in Canada, including one commercial product, Gramoxone, re-registered in 2018 until 2013.

New Developments in the Link Between Parkinson’s and Pesticides  (Beyond Pesticides, December 20, 2018)  'Lectin, which is often found in healthy foods like raw vegetables, eggs, and dairy, combined with paraquat in the gut and triggered the formation of a misfolded protein called alpha-synuclein, a foreign agent that likely plays a role in the development of Parkinson’s. Alpha-synuclein travels from the gut to the brain via the vagus nerve.  Any herbicide implicated in the development of a disease, which is expected to double in diagnosis over the next 20 years, raises serious questions about compliance with safety standards. A large body of scientific studies strongly implicates this chemical in the development of Parkinson’s disease. Earlier this year, research published in the journal Cell Reports implicated paraquat for its ability to create senescent cells that cause inflammation in the brain.'

Parkinson's linked to gut bacteria  (Robert Ferris, CNBC, 1 December 2016) The scientists published their findings Thursday in the journal Cell. 'The germ-free mice were still overproducing alpha-synuclein, but their brain cells were not accumulating the protein. The germ-free mice showed fewer symptoms and performed better on a series of motor skills tests meant to model the kinds of tests given to human patients.' More experiments determined that what gut flora produces affects the development of Parkinson's. SNAP Comments: Several pesticides and other toxins have been linked to Parkinson's in the past. Now we also know from research that some pesticides, including glyphosate, affect the health of gut bacteria, usually suppressing good flora and promoting bad. The effects of a pesticide on gut flora are not required tests for pesticide registration. Of course use of antibiotics and what one eats is also important, but remember that people eating conventional food ingest several pesticides on a daily basis. Evidence is accumulating that gut flora is extremely important to the maintenance of health and the development of many diseases. I sincerely hope that more pesticide and toxins regularly found in our environment start being tested for their effect on gut flora. That research would provide a mechanism of action.

Pesticides and Parkinson's: Further Proof of a Link  Jan. 3, 2013. UCLA researchers have discovered a link between Parkinson's and the pesticide benomyl, whose toxicological effects still linger some 10 years after the chemical was banned by the U.S. EPA and Canada...A new pathway was discovered. The pesticide prevents an enzyme called ALDH (aldehyde dehydrogenase) from keeping a lid on DOPAL, a toxin that naturally occurs in the brain. Benomyl was widely used in the U.S. for three decades until toxicological evidence revealed it could potentially lead to liver tumors, brain malformations, reproductive effects and carcinogenesis. It was banned from the US in 2001 and at the end of 2003 in Canada.

Agent Orange Tied to Parkinson’s in Vietnam Vets (July 2009)

Occupational Use of 2,4-D, Permethrin Triple the Risk of Parkinson’s Disease   (Beyond Pesticides, Sept.16,2009)

Gene Variants and Pesticide Exposure Increase Risk of Parkinson’s Disease   (Beyond Pesticides, January 11, 2010) The findings show that study participants with two copies of gene variant have a significantly increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease when exposed to certain organophosphate pesticides used in agriculture...Individuals with the variant MM PONI1-55 genotype that are exposed to organophosphates exhibit more than twice the risk of Parkinson’s disease compared to carriers of wildtype or heterozygous genotype and no exposure. ( diazinon, chlorpyrifos)

New evidence linking pesticides, genes & Parkinson's (PanUps,  May 14, 2009) "Exposure to commonly used agricultural pesticides may increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease, particularly among people who have certain gene types," reports Environmental Health News. Summarizing the new research, EHN notes: "The degenerative nerve disease can develop when dopamine levels in the brain are lower than normal. Without pesticide exposures, susceptible gene variants alone were not sufficient to increase risk. The increased risk to Parkinson's required both susceptible genes and pesticide exposure." The full article (PDF) is available from Environmental Health Perspectives.

Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides Increases Risk to Parkinson’s Disease. (Beyond Pesticides, March 16, 2009) Posted in California, Maneb, Paraquat, Parkinson's :exposure to both pesticides within 500 meters of an individual’s home increases the risk of developing Parkinson’s by 75 percent. For individuals 60 years of age or younger at the time of diagnosis, there is a more than four-fold increase in risk of the disease when exposed to a combination of maneb and paraquat

Gene-Pesticide Interactions Linked to Parkinson’s Disease (Beyond Pesticides, March 2, 2009) Posted in Maneb, Paraquat, Parkinson's

Pesticides may be blamed for rise of Parkinson' in Manitoba: Study

Pesticides Trigger Parkinson Disease by Kagan Owens(Pesticides and You. Vol 28, no 1, Spring 2008. Beyond Pesticides, p.14) Many types of insectides are toxic to the nervous system.The better-known classes such as the oganochlorines (OCs e.g. endosulfan), organophosphates (OPs: e.g.malathionchlorpyrifos), the carbamates (e.g. carbofuran), synthetic pyrethroids (e.g. permethrinresmethrin). some herbicides such as 2.4-D are also toxic to the nervous system. This article has a list of specific pesticides linked to Parkinson Disease.

Parkinson's Disease (Beyond Pesticides

also see Children, fact sheets/chlorpyrifos, Health/overview/links

Alzheimer's Disease (Beyond Pesticides)

MS and ALS under auto-immune diseases

Lower IQ in children

Motor Neuron Disease  Exposure to Pesticides linked to ALS (Beyond Pesticides, May 16, 2016) 


MicrocephalyCommon Mosquito Pesticide Exacerbates Health Issues Associated with Zika Virus   (Beyond Pesticides, September 28, 2021) 'A widely used mosquito pesticide may exacerbate the effect of the Zika virus on fetal brain development, according to research published by an international team of scientists in the journal Environmental PollutionPyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator often used as a mosquito larvicide, is registered for use in hundreds of commonly used pesticide products.' Through tadpole studies and  studies of stem cells created from mouse brains, researchers determined that not only was pyriproxyfen toxic to brain cells, but that it also modified cells to increase production of Musaschi-1 protein, which the Zika virus employs in order to transmit the virus to other cells in an individual’s body.   SNAP Comment: As of 18 October 2021, a PMRA label search indicates that pyriproxyfen is not nor has it been registered in Canada.

Pesticide Exposure Triggers Headaches and Other Cognitive Issues Among Youth in Farms Areas (Beyond Pesticides, November 25, 2020) The study demonstrates that there is a relationship between pesticide exposure from various farm-related and leisure activities and headaches and neurocognitive functioning (i.e., autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), lower intelligence (IQ), and harmful social behavior and behavioral regulation) in children and adolescents. The results demonstrate a link between headache severity and pesticide exposure-related farm activities as all activities increase the severity score. Neurocognitive results show an overall negative association with pesticide exposure-related activities, lowering multitasking skills, with direct fieldwork contributing to lower spatial memory, and impaired associated learning. Individuals who eat crops grown with chemical-intensive practices have slower motor-visual functioning and processing.    Considering the etiology (cause) of many brain and neurological disorders are unknown, research like this is significant for understanding how pesticide exposure promotes disease development, especially among vulnerable populations.

Environmental Chemicals Are Stealing IQ Points from American Children and Costing Trillions to the U.S. Economy  (Beyond Pesticides, January 16, 2020)    ' “Although people argue against costly regulations, unrestricted use of these chemicals is far more expensive in the long run, with American children bearing the largest burden,” says senior study author Leonardo Trasande, MD, MPP in a press release....Despite modest declines in organophosphate pesticide use over the study period, the impacts of organophosate exposure appear roughly on par with lead exposure. Pesticides were estimated to result in over 26 million lost IQ points and over 110,000 cases of intellectual disability, totaling roughly $735 billion in economic costs.'

Brain Function Damage from Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides, including Chlorpyrifos, Documented with Imaging  (Beyond Pesticides, August 30, 2019)   'The subject adolescents — estimated to have relatively high levels of prenatal exposure to organophosphates — showed aberrant brain activity in executive function, attention, social cognition, and language comprehension, compared to their peers.'   'Associate adjunct professor of epidemiology at UC Berkeley and lead author of the new study, Sharon Sagiv, PhD, said, “These results are compelling, because they support what we have seen with our neuropsychological testing, which is that organophosphates impact the brain.”'

Brain and Behavioral Effects of Early Exposures to Neurotoxicants  (University of California Television (UCTV), Aug 11, 2015)  There is also a significant link to meaningful tremors and learning deficits. This presentation addresses the impact of prenatal exposure to a common neurotoxicant on brain structure and neuropsychological function in an inner-city cohort of minority children. The toxic chemical, an organophosphate insecticide (chlorpyrifos), has been banned for indoor residential use in the U.S. since 2001, but continues to have widespread application for agricultural purposes. Possible moncholinergic mechanisms involve disruption of neural cell development and neurotransmitter systems, including the formation and activity of synapses in different brain regions. This presentation examines the evidence for long-term effects of prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure on neuropsychological profiles and brain morphology as measured by MRI. Series: "MIND Institute Lecture Series on Neurodevelopmental Disorders" Health and Medicine Professional Medical Education Show ID: 29838

Mothers with High Exposure to DDT More Likely to Have Children with Autism, Study Finds  (Beyond Pesticides, August 22, 2018)   Women tested for DDE and PCBs. "Though this study links autism to long-banned DDT, it raises significant concerns about legacy contamination from this chemical, which remains ubiquitous in the environment and in human bodies."

Mothers with High Exposure to DDT More Likely to Have Children with Autism, Study Finds  (Beyond Pesticides, August 22, 2018) 

women tested for DDE and PCBs "Though this study links autism to long-banned DDT, it raises significant concerns about legacy contamination from this chemical, which remains ubiquitous in the environment and in human bodies."

How the pesticide believed to be killing the bees could be affecting humans (By Nicole Mortillaro Science and Weather Reporter  Global News April 20, 2016) filed under health /links

Neonicotinoid pesticides blamed for bee deaths could affect humans, EU agency says (Alex Ballingall News, Dec 20 2013)  An agency-sponsored study suggested two neonicotinoids, acetamiprid and imidacloprid, might affect a developing human nervous system — that of a fetus or young child — in a way similar to nicotine exposure. The study identifies potential affects on memory, learning ability and motor use, leading the agency to propose lowering the levels of human exposure to the chemicals considered acceptable. 

New Research Confirms Neurotoxicity of Pesticide Synergist PBO (Beyond Pesticides, June 15, 2012) As with many so-called “inert” ingredients, pesticide products often contain five to ten times more PBO than the active ingredient in the formulation. PBO is listed among the top 10 chemicals detected in indoor dust, often a significant route of exposure to children...“We were concerned when our study confirmed that PBO disrupted neurological development pathways – especially given the widespread use of this chemical in American homes,” said Wei Chen, PhD,...

link to SNAP's page on pyrethrins and pyrethroids

Gulf war research indicated that mixing a drug to protect against nerve toxin, DEET for mosquito repellent and pyrethorids sprayed for sand flies in the tents compounded the toxicity many times and caused severe effects  at levels way below what each caused on its own.

Neurotoxicity Resulting from Coexposure to Pyridostigmine Bromide, DEET, and Permethrin: Implications of Gulf War Chemical Exposures. (Mohamed B. Abou-Donia. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Volume 48, Issue 1, 1996. pages 35-56)

Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Pyridostigmine Bromide, Permethrin, and DEET in the Laboratory Rat.(Wilfred C. McCain Robyn Lee Mark et al.Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Volume 50, Issue 2, 1997. pp pages 113-124)

Combined Exposure to Deet (N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide) and Permethrin: Pharmacokinetics and Toxicological Effects. (Aqel W. Abu-Qarea & Mohamed B. Abou-Donia.Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews.Volume 6, Issue 1, 2003. pages 41-53).